A sprain occurs when a ligament that connects bones to a joint is wrenched or

A sprain occurs when a ligament that connects bones

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disorders causing pain in the joints and supporting tissue. A sprain occurs when a ligament that connects bones to a joint is wrenched or torn (see Chapter 4 ). Synovitis (sin-oh- VYE -tiss) is inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint ( synov means synovial membrane, and -itis means inflammation). This condition can be caused by arthritis, trauma, infection, or irritation produced by damaged cartilage. Dislocation , also known as luxation (luck- SAY -shun), is the total displacement of a bone from its joint ( Figure 3.16 ).
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i. Subluxation ( sub -luck- SAY -shun) is the partial displacement of a bone from its joint. 39. Arthritis :Is an inflammatory condition of one or more joints Osteoarthritis: (OA) also known as wear-and-tear arthritis , is most commonly associated with aging ( oste/o means bone, arthr means joint, and -itis means inflammation) i. Degenerative joint disease because it is characterized by the wearing away of the articular cartilage within the joints. Degenerative means the breaking down or impairment of a body part. Spondylosis: is also known as spinal osteoarthritis . This degenerative disorder can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function ( spondyl means vertebrae, and -osis means abnormal condition or disease). Gout: also known as gouty arthritis , is a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid crystals in the joints, usually beginning with the big toe 40. Rheumatoid Arthritis: commonly known as RA , is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked. 41. Spinal column Herniated disk: also known as a slipped or ruptured disk , is the breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots 42. Bones Short Stature: formerly known as dwarfism, is a condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length compared to the size of the head and trunk Talipes: which is also known as clubfoot, describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus 43. Bone Tumors Primary bone cancer: is a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone Secondary bone cancer: describes tumors that have metasistized (spread) to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs 44. Osteoporosis and Osteopenia Compared Osteoporosis is primarily responsible for three types of fractures: i. Compression fracture: also known as vertebral crush fracture, occurs when the bone is pressed together on itseld ii. Colles’ fracture: aka fractured wrist, occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands iii. Osteoporotic hip fracture: also known as broken hip, is usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously of as the result of a fall 45. Fracture: which is a broken bone, is described in terms of complexity Closed fracture , also known as a simple fracture or a complete fracture , is one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin Open fracture , also known as a compound fracture , is one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin.
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