Unified monarchies were beginning to organize and the

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Unified monarchies were beginning to organize, and the smaller fractured states were unable to compete. Countries like France or Spain simply had access to so many more resources and soldiers; their size made them powerful. If Spain had remained under the rule of the Emperor, if it and the Holy Roman Empire had been ruled by one unified purpose and direction then it is easy to imagine them sweeping over all of Europe. As Gunn points out the chief opponent and rival of the the Habsburgs were the French. If Spain and the Habsburgs remain as one then France finds itself almost completely surrounded. Furthermore, if size is power in medieval Europe then the combined territories of Spain and the Habsburgs dwarf that of France. It is therefore not hard to imagine that if the Emperor had remained in control of both kingdoms then the Habsburgs may well have taken France. The ability of the Habsburgs to use dynastic marriages to acquire land was truly impressive. Their proficiency allowed them to rule over Spain and most of central Europe, and their hunger for expansion went unsatisfied. It was only thanks to the German princes fearing for their own power that the Habsburgs were slowed. Thanks to their intervention the Habsburgs
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didn't manage to bring all of Europe under their dominion.
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