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-Wilting Flowers (1947)-The Drowned Temple (1962)-Weapons and Children (1955)Was one of the greatest poets in Arabic literature, whose experiments helped to change the course of modern Arabic poetry. At the end of the 1940s he launched, with Nazik al-Mala'ika,and shortly followed by Abd al-Wahhāb al-ʿBayātīand Shathel Taqa, the free verse movement and gave it credibility with the many fine poems he published in the fifties. He revolutionized all the elements of the poem and wrote highly involved political and social poetry, along with many personal poems.19.Tawfik or Tawfiq al-Hakim1898-1987Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik el-Hakim wasa prominent Egyptianwriter. He is one of the pioneers of the Arabic novel and drama. He was born in Alexandria, Egypt,the son of an Egyptian wealthy judge and a Turkish mother.-A bullet in the Heart, 1926 (play)-The Return of the Spirit, 1933 (Novel)-The Return of Consciousness, 1974Tawfiq el-Hakim is oneof the major pioneer figures in modern Arabicliterature. In theparticular realm of theatre, he fulfils an overarching role as the sole founder of an entire literary tradition, as Taha Husseinhad earlier made clear. His struggles on behalf of Arabicdrama as a literary genre, its techniques, and its
language, are coterminous with the achievement of a central role in contemporary Egyptianpolitical and social life.20.Najib (or Nagib) Mahfuz (or Mahfouz)1911-2006Naguib Mahfouz wasan Egyptian writer who won the 1988 Nobel Prize for Literature. He is regarded as one of the first contemporary writersof Arabic literature, along with Tawfiq el-Hakim, to explore themes of existentialism.-A translation into Arabic of James Baikie’s Ancient Egypt-Arabian Nights and Days (1981-Adrift on the Nile (1966)He published 34 novels, over 350 short stories, dozens of movie scripts, and five plays over a 70-year career. Many of his works have been made into Egyptianand foreign films. Most of Mahfouz’s writings deal mainly with politics.21.Nizar Qabbani or Kabbani1923-1998Nizar Tawfiq Qabbani was a Syriandiplomat, poet and publisher. His poetic style combines simplicity and elegance in exploringthemes of love, eroticism, feminism, religion, and Arab nationalism.-Childhood of a Breast (1948)-Alphabet of Jasmine (1998)-To Beirut the Feminine, With MyLove (1978) When asked whether hewas a revolutionary, thepoet answered: “Love in the Arab world is like a prisoner, and I want to set (it) free. I want to free the Arab soul, sense and body with my poetry. The relationships between men and women in our society are not healthy.” He is known as one of the most feministand progressive intellectuals of his time.22.Asmahan (singer)1912-1944Was an ArabDruzesinger and actress of Syrian origins who lived in Egypt. Having immigrated to Egyptin childhood, her familyknew the composer Dawood Hosni, and she sang the compositions of Mohamed El Qasabgiand Zakariyya Ahmad.She also sang the compositions of Mohammed Abdel Wahaband her brother Farid al--Al-Khitam Operette (from the movie Intisar Al Shabab)-Eedy fi Eedak-Hadeath AynaynHer voice was one of