School based interventions such as keepin it REAL Hecht et al 2003 teach

School based interventions such as keepin it real

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School - based interventions , such as keepin it REAL (Hecht et al. 2003 ), teach students antidrug norms, peer resistance, and social and coping skills, reinforced by booster activities (e.g., role- plays) and media campaigns. Such programs have been shown effective in reducing disruptive behavior problems and early initiation of sub- stance use. Among higher-risk adolescents in alternative high schools, ef fi cacy has been dem- onstrated for prevention programs that include instruction in motivation enhancement, life coping skills, and decision making (Sussman et al. 2014 ). Emergency department interventions , such as screening, brief intervention, and referral to treat- ment (SBIRT) programs, have been implemented with adolescents who present at hospitals with alcohol-related injuries. Data are equivocal (Mitchell et al. 2013 ; Yuma-Guerrero et al. 2012 ), with several studies showing compa- rable positive consumption and consequence 184 Alcohol Use Disorders
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