Psychology in Action

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lithium carbonate. Recent research has also implicated certain brain areas that may trigger episodes of mood disorder. There is also evidence for a genetic predisposition for both major depression and bipolar disorder. The evolutionary perspective suggests moderate depression may be an adaptive response to a loss. Psychoanalytic theories of mood disorders emphasize anger and loss, humanistic theories focus on poor self-concept, and learning theory suggest theories, such as, learned helplessness. Learned helplessness theory suggests that depression results from repeated failures at attempted escape from the source of stress. Instructor’s Resource Guide                              Chapter 14                                         Page   175
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Research Highlight: Suicide and Its Prevention - Suicide is a serious problem associated with mood disorders. Students are asked to respond to a questionnaire containing ten true/false statement regarding suicide. Major warning signs of suicide are reviewed. Critical Thinking/Active Learning: How Your Thoughts Can Make You Depressed – Students are presented with two situations which provide an opportunity to think about how thoughts may cause mild to serious depression. IV. SCHIZOPHRENIA - Schizophrenia is a serious psychotic mental disorder that afflicts approximately one out of every 100 people. A. Symptoms of Schizophrenia - The major symptoms are disturbances in perception (impaired filtering and selection, and hallucinations); language and thought disturbances (impaired logic, word salads, neologisms, and delusions); emotional disturbances (either exaggerated or blunted emotions); and behavioral disturbances (social withdrawal, bizarre mannerisms, catalepsy, waxy flexibility). B. Types of Schizophrenia – For many years researchers have divided the schizophrenias into paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual subtypes. An alternative classification system has been proposed. Schizophrenic symptoms involving distorted or excessive mental activity (e.g., delusions and hallucinations) would be classified as positive symptoms , whereas symptoms involving behavioral deficits (e.g., toneless voice, flattened emotions) would be classified as negative symptoms . C. Explaining Schizophrenia - Biological theories of the causes of schizophrenia emphasize genetics (people inherit a predisposition), disruptions in neurotransmitters (primarily dopamine), and abnormalities in brain structure or function (such as enlarged ventricles or low levels of activity in the frontal and temporal lobes). Psychosocial theories of schizophrenia focus on two possible psychosocial contributors. The diathesis-stress model suggests that stress is a trigger for initial episodes and for relapse.
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