ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

Managers have always been concerned with change

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Managers have always been concerned with change. Today’s managers must learn to cope with temporariness. They have to learn to live with flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability. The study of organizational behavior can provide important insights into helping managers better understand a work world of continual change, how to overcome resistance to change, and how best to create an organizational culture that thrives on change. Members of organizations are increasingly finding themselves facing ethical dilemnas, situations where they are required to define right and wrong conduct. For example, should they blow the whistle if they uncover illegal activities taking place within their company? Should a person follow orders they don’t personally agree with? What constitutes good ethical behavior has never been clearly defined and in recent years, the line differentiating right from wrong has become even more blurred. A model is an abstraction of reality; a simplified representation of some real-world phenomenon. There are three basic levels of analysis in organizational behavior (OB). The three basic levels are analogous to building blocks with each level being constructed based on the previous level. A basic OB model consists of individual, group, and organizational system levels. A dependent variable is a response that is affected by an independent variable. In other words, the dependent variable is the effect, the independent variable is the cause. You change the independent variable, it affects the dependent variable. Dependent variables are the key factors to be explained or predicted. Scholars tend to emphasize primary dependent variables in organizational behavior (OB) as being productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction Productivity is a performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency. An organization is productive if it achieves its goals and does so by transferring inputs to outputs at the lowest cost. As such, productivity implies a concern for both effectiveness and efficiency. For example, a hospital is effective if it successfully meets the needs of its clientele. It is efficient when it can do this at a low cost. Absenteeism, a dependent variable, is the failure to report for work. The annual cost of absenteeism has been estimated at over $40 billion for U.S. organizations. It is obviously difficult for an organization to operate smoothly if employees fail to report to their jobs. The workflow is disrupted, and often, important decisions must be delayed. In organizations that rely heavily on assembly-line technology, absenteeism can be more than a disruption-- it can result in a drastic reduction in the quality of output. Voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from the organization is known as turnover .
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