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therapy, and placement of an inferior vena cava filter (Huether & McCance, 2017). CVI is initially managed with noninvasive treatments such as elevating the legs, wearing compression stockings and performing physical exercise (Huether & McCance, 2017). Non-conservative treatments include endovenous ablation, sclerotherapy or surgical ligation, conservative vein resection, and vein stripping (Huether & McCance, 2017). A study shows that obesity increases the risk of a person having a chronic venous disease (Seidel et al., 2015). Since obesity is a risk factor for both disorders, it is vital to advise patients to maintain a healthy weight and target a normal body mass index. ConclusionVenous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common life-threatening cardiovascular disease in the United States (Wilbur & Shian, 2017). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 2015), there are as many as 900,000 people that are affected with venous thromboembolism each year in the United States. That is 1 to 2 cases per 1000 people (CDC, 2015). On the other hand, there are more than 25 million adults in the UnitedStates that are affected by CVI and more than 6 million with more advanced venous disease (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2014). The incidence rate of CVI is 92 cases per 100,000 hospital admissions annually (McArdle & Hernandez-Vila, 2017). According to CDC (2015), 10 to 30% of people with VTE will die within one month of diagnosis and that 25% of people who have a PE will die from sudden death.Given this prevalence and impact of mortality and morbidity, it is vital to understand the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic options of DVT and CVI.
DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES6MINDMAPRISK FACTORS ETIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY Immobility Genetics - Third most common lifePregnancy and postpartum - Factor V Leiden mutation threatening cardiovascularAge over 40 - Protein S and C deficiency disease in the UnitedStatesSmoking- Prothrombin mutation- 900,000 Americans areUse of oral contraceptivesVirchow’s Triadaffected from VTEannually and Estrogen- Hypercoagulability- 60,000 to1000,000 of Previous history of VTE- StasisAmericans die due to VTEObesity- Endothelial damage- 30% of people with VTEMajor surgerywill die within 1 monthActive cancerof diagnosisAccumulation of clotting factors and plateletsThrombus Formation Inflammatory responsePulmonary EmbolismLeg painAnticoagulation therapyPost thrombotic syndromeRednessThrombolytic therapyDeep Vein ThrombosisPathophysiologyClinical ManifestationsManagementComplications
DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES7Chronic venous insufficiencyEdemaPlacement of inferior vena cava filterSources: Huether & McCain, 2017, Heit, Spencer, & White, 2016MINDMAPRISK FACTORS ETIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY Prolonged standing Genetics (family history of CVI) - 25 million Americanadults Pregnancy Pre-existing weakness of the vessel are affected byCVIFemale sexDirect injury to the vessel wall- 6 million AmericansadultsIncreasing ageSuperficial phlebitis are affected by moreHigh impact physicalPrevious history of DVTadvanced venous diseaseObesityHormones