CVI is initially managed with noninvasive treatments such as elevating the legs

Cvi is initially managed with noninvasive treatments

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therapy, and placement of an inferior vena cava filter (Huether & McCance, 2017). CVI is initially managed with noninvasive treatments such as elevating the legs, wearing compression stockings and performing physical exercise (Huether & McCance, 2017). Non- conservative treatments include endovenous ablation, sclerotherapy or surgical ligation, conservative vein resection, and vein stripping (Huether & McCance, 2017). A study shows that obesity increases the risk of a person having a chronic venous disease (Seidel et al., 2015). Since obesity is a risk factor for both disorders, it is vital to advise patients to maintain a healthy weight and target a normal body mass index. Conclusion Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common life-threatening cardiovascular disease in the United States (Wilbur & Shian, 2017). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; 2015), there are as many as 900,000 people that are affected with venous thromboembolism each year in the United States. That is 1 to 2 cases per 1000 people (CDC, 2015). On the other hand, there are more than 25 million adults in the United States that are affected by CVI and more than 6 million with more advanced venous disease (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2014). The incidence rate of CVI is 92 cases per 100,000 hospital admissions annually (McArdle & Hernandez-Vila, 2017). According to CDC (2015), 10 to 30% of people with VTE will die within one month of diagnosis and that 25% of people who have a PE will die from sudden death. Given this prevalence and impact of mortality and morbidity, it is vital to understand the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic options of DVT and CVI.
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DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES 6 MIND MAP RISK FACTORS ETIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY Immobility Genetics - Third most common life Pregnancy and postpartum - Factor V Leiden mutation threatening cardiovascular Age over 40 - Protein S and C deficiency disease in the United States Smoking - Prothrombin mutation - 900,000 Americans are Use of oral contraceptives Virchow’s Triad affected from VTE annually and Estrogen - Hypercoagulability - 60,000 to 1000,000 of Previous history of VTE - Stasis Americans die due to VTE Obesity - Endothelial damage - 30% of people with VTE Major surgery will die within 1 month Active cancer of diagnosis Accumulation of clotting factors and platelets Thrombus Formation Inflammatory response Pulmonary Embolism Leg pain Anticoagulation therapy Post thrombotic syndrome Redness Thrombolytic therapy Deep Vein Thrombosis Pathophysiology Clinical Manifestations Management Complications
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DISORDERS OF THE VEINS AND ARTERIES 7 Chronic venous insufficiency Edema Placement of inferior vena cava filter Sources: Huether & McCain, 2017, Heit, Spencer, & White, 2016 MIND MAP RISK FACTORS ETIOLOGY EPIDEMIOLOGY Prolonged standing Genetics (family history of CVI) - 25 million American adults Pregnancy Pre-existing weakness of the vessel are affected by CVI Female sex Direct injury to the vessel wall - 6 million Americans adults Increasing age Superficial phlebitis are affected by more High impact physical Previous history of DVT advanced venous disease Obesity Hormones
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  • Venous insufficiency, chronic venous insufficiency

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