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has adopted other performance management systems or programmes before adopting BSC, it is necessary to integrate BSC with any existing systems. For example, using the BSC, Solano et al. (2003) presented an integrated model of systematic quality, which attempted to balance product quality with process effectiveness and efficiency. Kanji (1998) developed a business excellence model that was suitable for organis- ations that incorporate the critical success factors of TQM. Based on this business excel- lence model, Kanji (1998) then developed a ‘business scorecard’. Kanji and S A ˆ (2001) later developed a ‘Kanji business excellence measurement system’ by integrating the business excellence model and Kanji’s business scorecard (see Figure 3). In developing this business model, Kanji and S A ˆ (2001) asserted that the causality links in BSC suggesting visions and strategies among the four perspectives are particularly problematic and ambiguous, and that the BSC fails to make explicit recognition of the contributions of important stakeholders (such as employees and suppliers). They also claimed that the BSC can be improved by integrating total quality management principles and critical success factors – which constituted Kanji’s business excellence model. By combining the BSC and Kanji’s business excellence model, Kanji and S A ˆ (2001, 2002) produced Kanji’s ‘business scorecard’. Figure 3. Kanji’s business excellence measurement system. Total Quality Management 935 Downloaded By: [Brunel University] At: 09:09 28 March 2010
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Development of an integrated business excellence system The literature review suggests that it is both desirable and possible to integrate an existing TQM system with other relevant management systems and programmes to develop a holistic quality management system (see Figure 4). This holistically integrated model can be used in association with the frameworks of the MBNQA and the EQA. It is recog- nised that the frameworks of the MBNQA and the EQA are based on the TQM system (Puay et al., 1998; Tan et al., 2003), and that the key metrics of the MBNQA model can thus be used to assess how well a firm is implementing the TQM system. As a result, many companies use the criteria items in the national quality awards to evaluate their performance in the implementation of TQM (Prybutok & Cutshall, 2004). Integration of continuous improvement and Six Sigma programme The existing TQM system consists of quality concepts, operational practices and method- ologies, together with some useful tools. TQM includes the following practices (Brown, 1992; McAdam & McKeown, 1999; Ross, 1993; Short & Rahim, 1995; Yang, 2003a): . commitment, support and leadership from senior management; . quality objectives and strategies; . customer focus and satisfaction; . employee involvement and empowerment; .
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