Democracy was doing so well in the usa at the time

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Democracy was doing so well in the USA at the time – because of active associationsFor him, this was a check – it helped prevent this tyranny of the majority This part of his works – like DurkheimoHe also looked at causes of revolutions Not like Durkheim – he talks about conflict Power (Sep 17)Glasberg and ShannonPower is the central concept of political sociology (even in the interrelational view)4 theories of power: don’t consider what power is, suggest how power is organized is societyoPluralism (Group and Elite): power is evenly distributed; democracy must respond to diverse interest groupsIdeal/optimistic view of democracyThe state is a neutral arbitrator Criticism: doesn’t look at relative power & resources of different interest groups oPower Elite Theory: emerged as critique to pluralism, suggested elites control politics and are able to follow their personal interests (vs. public interests of society at large)
Associated with C. Wright Mills, pessimistic oMarxist: sees power as rooted in the economy and based on class relationsoPost-Structuralist(or Post-Modernist): focuses on discipline and discourse as basis of the organization of powerAfter going over these four, the authors go over what power actually isoThis will be the focus for the rest of the lecture PowerPower is difficult to defineoTalcott Parsons(structural-functionalist): capability to do somethingoMax Weber: capability to do something despite resistance from others oFoucault(post-modernist): a force exerted on us that shapes our actions; it’s out there, we’ve lost control of it (need not be wielded by someone)Steven Lukes: oTakes aims at the pluralist view of power, which he views as only one aspect of powerPluralism was the dominant view when he was writing oThe First Face of Power:
Coincides with pluralist view of power; it’s about competition and resources All societies have multiple bases of power, multiple groups competing Power is therefore based on the resources that they are able to mobilize E.g. money, political connections, intelligence, strength, will, etc Evident; not a hidden face of power oThe Second Face of Power:Hidden more than the first, but not as hidden as the third faceInstitutional rules that affect whose interests are pursued Who is able to participate in decision-making Who sets the agenda Differs from 1stface in that rules instead of resources are basis of powerConflict isn’t necessarily in the open, hiddenAllows people with power to maintain it E.g. women not allowed to voteoThe Third Face of Power:Power exerted by controlling the beliefs and perspectives of individualsVery hidden, not necessarily controlled by anyoneFalse consciousness: subjective interests oppose objective interests (they think something is good for them, when it’s bad)Lack of consciousness: don’t recognize interests at all Foucault (post-structuralist) oPower “can be identified better by what it does than what it is”o

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