oHoney, apiculture, meadoFar southern Europe, 700s oWestern Europe, 1100’s regular mention of sugar through Europeans in the crusade visiting the Islamic world. Islamic world expands into southern Europe and bring sugar with them. Eventually elites have cane sugar in their diets. oSpice and medicine. Europeans using small quantities at first just to add small flavor. oSugar hard to get. Expanding European Consumption o1200’s – 1500’s Europeans using it in larger quantities as decoration and desert and to make marzipan. Consumed fancily if not medicinal. EXTREME FORM OF CONSPICIOUS CONSUMPTION. expensive and only affordable by a few and then consumed in a day.oSome people put in fruit in 1400s to haul out in off season and enjoy. o1600’s baking make deserts beside extreme structures. recopies for cake and cookies start. Savory pie moves to sweet pie. Drop in price and increased access. o1700 dissolving in TEA. omid 1800’s Europeans getting 50% of their calories from sugar. energy with both of them together. Atlantic Sugar oAtlantic island uninhabited ; Azores, Madeira, Cape Verde Islands, Sao Tome inhabited ; canaries (re-found)oColonization. oFinding these islands and using what was on them made it possible to go farther. oEuropeans started to leave livestock on the islands and came back and killed it for meat. oCan these islands be farmed and turn a profit?? they get converted into farming societies. primarily running livestock and growing wheat. Sugar Plantations. oSugar islands madeira, canary islands, Sao Tome(1516; 4000 slaves imported, 1550’s ;60 sugar mills. The best sugar plantation society.)oPlantation coloniesoPlantation large scale, investment, distant market, coerced labor. oBecame sugar centered islands. Southern Europeans societies don’t have huge excess populations that they can ship to do the labor work no one will agree back home. oThe islands have tropical diseases and hotter environment than Europe dangerous so noEuropeans sign up to work. oStart to look to west Africa at ports of trading to purchase slave labor. at first a small story of trying out bought labor and overtime the plantation system becomes complex so all islands transition to African labor.