Insects and microorganisms 40 or more ii detrivore

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Insects and microorganisms- 40% or more ii. Detrivore- vast majority of an ecosystem’s production is consumed by detritivores a. use organic waste as source of food b. decomposers c. play a key role in the general pattern of chemical cycling ii. NPP= GPP-R a. Net primary production (NPP) equals Gross Primary Production (GPP) minus Respiration ® b. Gross primary production (GPP): the amount of energy from light (or chemicals, in chemoautrophs) converted to the chemical energy of orrganic molecules per unit time. c. Net primary production (NPP): equal to gross primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for their “autotrophic respiration” 1. NPP represents the storage of chemical energy that will be available to consumers in the ecosystem ii. Trophic transfers b. Biogeochemical cycles: nutrient cycles in ecosystem involving biotic and abiotic components i. all elements cycle between organic and inorganic reserviors ii. water, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus b. Carbon cycle: i. Biological importance: essential to all organism a. Carbon forms the framework of the organic molecules essential to all organisms ii. Forms available to life: a. Photosynthetic organisms convert CO2 to organic molecules that are used by heterotrophs b. Photosynthetic organisms utilize CO2 during photosynthesis and convert the carbon to organic forms that are used by consumers (animals, fungi, heterotrophic protists and prokaryotes) ii. Reservoirs: a. include fossil fuels, soils and sediments, solutes in oceans, plant and animal biomass, the atmosphere, and sedimentary rocks b. Major reservoirs include fossil fuels, soils, the sediments of aquatic ecosystems, the oceans, plant and animal biomass and the atmosphere. The largest reservoir is sedimentary rocks such as limestone ii. Key processes:
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a. CO2 is taken up and released through photosynthesis and respiration; additionally, volcanos and the burning of fossil fuels contribute CO2 to the atmosphere b. Photosynthesis by plants and phytoplankton removes substantial amounts of atmospheric CO2 each year. The quantity is approximately equaled by CO2 added to the atmosphere through cellular respiration by producers and consumers b. Nitrogen cycle: i. Biological importance: a. component of amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids b. Nitrogen is part of amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids and is often a limiting plant nutrient ii. Forms available to life a. Plants can assimilate two inorganic forms of nitrogen - ammonium and nitrate - and some organic forms, such as amino acids. Various bacteria can use all of these forms and animals can use only forms of nitrogen. ii. Reservoirs a. Main reservoirs of nitrogen are in the atmosphere, which is 80% free nitrogen gas. The other reservoirs of inorganic and organic nitrogen compounds are soils and the sediments of lakes, rivers, and oceans: surface water and groundwater; and the biomass of living organisms b. the main reservoir of nitrogen is the atmosphere (N2), though this nitrogen must be converted to NH4+ or NO3- for uptake by plants, via nitrogen fixation by bacteria ii. Key processes a.
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