Culling by volunteers is most likely to be done with archery equipment, because of the ability to be quiet and unobtrusive and utilize small habitat patches throughout the community. Professionals often cull using rifles. They may have considerable experience selecting safe shooting zones in developed areas and typically also have specialized infrared equipment that enables them to detect people and other animals from a distance at night. If there are only a few places in a community where deer can be safely shot, or if community members are unwilling to support methods that involve shooting, alternative approaches to population reduction will be necessary. Professionals can be hired to capture deer with traps, nets or anesthetic darts and then kill them with either a captive-bolt gun or injection of potassium chloride. However, there are several negative consequences of these methods. Trapping causes stress and possible injury for the deer, use of a captive bolt on a wild, unsedated animal is challenging for the operator, and use of chemicals renders the carcasses unsafe for consumption, so the meat is wasted. If the deer have not been injected with anything, every effort should be made to ensure that the venison resulting from community hunts or culls gets eaten. Hunters who are given access to private land can promote positive relationships by offering to share meat with the landowners. In a controlled hunt or cull situation, the community may wish to require that some or all of the meat be donated to charity. There are organizations (e.g. Venison Donation Coalition, Farmers
19 & Hunters Feeding the Hungry) that get donated deer butchered and the meat distributed to food banks and other assistance agencies. This low-fat meat is a tremendous boon for needy community members. Some municipalities (e.g. Town of Southold) develop their own programs for collecting and distributing donated deer, and may opt to make the meat available to all residents. The locavore movement has increased interest nationwide in eating local wild game meat. No matter how venison is distributed, if firearms have been used the community should make sure recipients have information on how to avoid ingestion of lead from bullet fragments, and all shooters should be encouraged to use lead-free ammunition.Fertility control People who are disturbed by the idea of killing animals often wish to control deer populations by reducing the birth rate rather than increasing the death rate. Even with effective fertility control, this wouldn’t be a good way to reduce impacts of deer because it would just keep populations from growing; it wouldn’tdirectly reduce them. Deer can live to be 20 years old, so population reduction would happen slowly if at all, and without hunting or culling most deaths would be from vehicle collisions, which isn’t a prudent or humane method of removing deer. Meanwhile, the negative social and ecological impacts of deer would continue at levels which were found to be unacceptable by the community when they decided to initiate deer management efforts.