Counter-Reformation: an effort by the Catholic church to reaffirm basic Catholic beliefs in response to Protestantism. – In Spain, the monarchy created an “Inquisition” to root out protestants and heretics. CultivationDawn stonesDona MarinaEastern Woodlands Cultures: Various Native American peoples, particularly the Algonquian, Iroquoian,and Muskogean regional groups, who once dominated the Atlantic seaboard from Maine to Louisiana. EcomenderosEcomienda:a land-grant system under which Spanish army officers were awarded large parcels of land taken from Native Americans. EolithFeudalismFrancisco Pizarro: another Spaniard, 1531, led a band of soldiers down the Pacific coast of Central and South America from Panama toward Peru, where they brutally subdued the Inca Empire. Giovanni de Verrazano:sent across the Atlantic in 1524. Sighted land at Cape Fear, NC. Killed in West Indies in 1528 by Carib Indians. Global warming:Climate grew hotter and dryer - grasslands gave way to forests, which provided plants and small animals for human consumptionGulf Coast peoplesHenry VIII:ruler of England 1509-1547, had a lot of wives, won from the pope the title Defender of the Faith for refuting Martin Luther’s rebellious ideas. Then severed the relationship with the Catholic church to get a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Daughter was Elizabeth I. Hernan Cortes: A Spanish conquistador – who led his army to conquer Mexica and caused its downfall within 2 years. RuthlessHernando de Soto:in 1539, along with 600 conquistadors, landed on Florida’s west coast, traveled north as far as western NC and then moved westward. Died in 1542 in Mississippi, while survivors of his party floated down the Mississippi River to MexicoHominidsHomo habilusHomo sapiensHuman sacrificeHunter-gatherersIce AgeIgnatius de Loyola:in 1534, a Spanish soldier organized the society of Jesus, a militant monastic order created to revitalize Catholicism around the world. Inca:12 million people speaking at least 20 different languages made up the Inca Empire. Indios
IndulgencesInfectious Diseases:Also called contagious diseases, illnesses that can pass from one person to anotherby way of invasive biological organisms able to reproduce in the bodily tissues of their hosts. Europeans unwittingly brought many such diseases to the Americas, devastating the Native American peoples. Introduction of the Horse:The Spanish introduced the horse to the Americas. The introduction changed everything, providing the Plains Indians with a new source of mobility and power. Iroquois:Upstate NY to Pennsylvania to the Carolinas & GA. Farmers who lived together in extended family groups. Corn & Squash. Women held key leadership roles.
- Fall '17
- Cliff Tyndall