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22 42613 23 homo floresiensis living until at least

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4/26/13 23 Homo floresiensis Living until at least 12,000 years ago!
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4/26/13 24 Neanderthals Lived ~138,000 to 28,000 years ago – Mostly an Ice Age Never numbered more than 100,000 1856, Neander Valley, Germany – 1 st Neanderthal skull discovered Neanderthals vs. Humans
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4/26/13 25 Neanderthals vs. Humans 5 ft, 185 lbs Larger noses, heads, bones, muscles – Bulkier, stronger than humans – Efficient and well suited to cold environments Less agile – Short limbs, wide pelvises Brain Sizes
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4/26/13 26 Neanderthal necklace Neanderthal DNA? Problems: DNA in Neanderthal bones is degraded
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4/26/13 27 Neanderthal DNA? Problems: DNA in Neanderthal bones is degraded Neanderthal bones have been handled by humans! Neanderthal DNA? Solution: Handle samples carefully
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4/26/13 28 Neanderthal DNA? Solution: Handle samples carefully Identify a few genome positions that differ between Neanderthals and all humans, use these to measure what fraction of DNA from a bone is Neanderthal Neanderthal genome sequenced in 2010!
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4/26/13 29 What makes us human? What makes us human? Genes involved in brain function, type II diabetes, bone growth
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4/26/13 30 Neanderthal-human admixture Denisova Cave
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4/26/13 31 Denisova Cave Denisova Cave
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4/26/13 32 Denisovan genome sequenced in 2010! More admixture!
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4/26/13 33 Has all this admixture done us any good? Has all this admixture done us any good?
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4/26/13 34 Lots of options! BIO 113: Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution BIO 136: Evolutionary Paleobiology BIO 143: Evolution BIO 172: Molecular Basis of Body Plan Evolution BIO 182: Modeling Cultural Evolution BIO 183: Theoretical Population Genetics
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