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Cleaning sanitary fire protection air conditioning

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Cleaning, “sanitary” Fire protection Air conditioning Irrigation Agricultural Industrial Cooling ( in power production ) Steam ( for process heating ) Process water ( relatively minor ) Nonconsumptive Recreation Swimming Boating Transportation Water return Evaporative losses Quality degradation Relationship between usage and quality requirements
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CHE 3170 Jennings WATER SUPPLY WATER SUPPLY System components Source Collection Treatment ───> Usage ───> Treatment Distribution Discharge Surface water sources ( rivers, lakes, impoundments ) Statistical fluctuations Quality generalizations Ground water sources Types of aquifers Wells ( cone of depression, salt water intrusion ) Quality generalizations
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CHE 3170 Jennings WATER QUALITY DEFINITION OF QUALITY Physical parameters Human senses taste, odor, color, “turbidity” Temperature Chemical ? pH, salinity Relationship to human health Chemical Aesthetic problems Human uses pH, hardness, alkalinity Natural systems DO, BOD, N, P Human health problems toxicity, carcinogenicity “Trace” organics Number of separate compounds “Gross measurement” COD, TOC “Screening” methods GC / MS Analysis to ppt levels “Heavy metals” Pb, Hg, Cr, Cu, Fe, etc. Particulates TSS, TDS, VSS, NVSS More important as air pollutant Measurement of biomass Health effects associated with chemicals adsorbed on surface Industrial uses Heating, cooling corrosion, scaling “Process” water (solvent) reactivity Biological Microorganisms Pathogenic (“disease causing”) bacteria, viruses Nonpathogenic algae, fecal bacteria, “indicator” organisms Macroorganisms May be affected by toxic compounds at lower dosage than humans Used as indicator of contamination of natural waters – e.g. , fish kills Bioaccumulation TREATMENT PRIORITIES Human health Environmental protection
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