Risks can be viewed as gains or losses The framing effect Gain vs loss Risk

Risks can be viewed as gains or losses the framing

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Risks can be viewed as gains or losses The framing effect: Gain vs. lossRisk tolerance depends on how options (choice) are described Explanations : prospect theoryPeople value gains and losses in diff ways. Value is assigned to gains and losses as a function of someone’s current state (reference point) ad not absolute value.When viewed as a gain: risks are avoided because the value of the outcome is low When viewed as a loss: risks are taken because the value is high Risks as feelingsIncreased amygdala activity for choses safe outcomes for gains and chosen risky outcomes for losses. This suggest that an emotional response may underlie the framing effect Lecture 20 Intelligence: generally thought to relate to efficient and appropriate decision makint -learning from experience -adapting to ones environment -acting purposefully It also represents individual difference -Tests (UQ) have been designed to measure general intelligence self estimates of intelligence
PSYC 213 Winter 2018 Malka A-r -females attributed higher IQ teste to other people compared to themselves more often than men -both males and females gave higher IQ estimates for their mothers interpretation: there is a gender bias in how intelligence is viewed (Èas a masculine trait) Three main uses for IQ scores 1.clinical and neuropsychological assessment 2.education placement 3. Career assessment Measuring intelligence ----Psychometrics -the study of psychological assessment -standardized tests ----Concepts related to psychometrics and testing -standardization (test scores are compared to pre-tested “standardization”-Scores are normally distributed (a normal curve symmetrical bell shaped curve) The start of intelligence testing FRANCIS GALTON -intelligence can be measured scientifically -Via reaction time to identify stimuli (ex sounds) He fouded the eugenics movement -it was racially motivated view of how to “improve” society by using intelligence measurements. Iluustrates influence of race and culture stereotypes in the development of intelligence tests. The “Bell Curve” book . It says intelligence is predicted by environmental and genetic factors( ethnicity and race can predict intelligence. There is a cognitive “elite”). Heavily criticized.The birth of IQ score: 1. Simon Binet test -developped test in response to French govments request to identify children that needed special education. Only later used as intelligence test. For Binet intelligence is important for -practucal life -adapting to circumstances -judging nd reasoning well Performance method: asses intellectual skills and knowledge by determining the ability to correctly answer questions. Used empirical evidence to create questions to determine child’s mental age simon binet test: 30 questions of increasing difficulty (easy to hard) For the number of questions answered correctly, a child mental age was calculated.
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