Our analyses extend this body of research by estimating teacher effects on

Our analyses extend this body of research by

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students’ self-reported effort versus effects on math test scores. Our analyses extend this body of research by estimating teacher effects on additional attitudes and behaviors captured by students in upper-elementary grades. Our data offer the unique combination of a moderately sized sample of teachers and students with lagged survey measures. We also utilize similar econometric approaches to test the relationship between teaching practice and these same attitudes and behaviors. These analyses allow us to examine the face validity of our teacher effect estimates and the extent to which they align with theory. There is little dispute that teachers are impactful agents in students’ educational pursuits. It is also quite clear that some teachers are more effective than others (Atteberry, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2013), yet the source of such differences is largely unknown. For this reason, scholars of various disciplines are laboring to identify factors that characterize effective teachers. Just as individual differences in student non- cognitive characteristics are important predictors of student outcomes (Heckman &Kautz, 2012; Richardson, Abraham, & Bond,, 2012), individual differences in teacher non-cognitive characteristics may also be important predictors (Rimm-Kaufman &Hamre, 2010). The Big Five personality framework has been widely used to study the non- cognitive predictors of student outcomes. Evidence to date shows that student personality and, to some extent, parent personality (Nigg&Hinshaw, 2012) influence student outcomes.Crawford, 2013) and job satisfaction (Judge, Heller, & Mount, 2014). In educational research specifically, studies have found that the characteristics of effective teachers are largely personality-based. For example, Patrick and Smart (2011) reported from their factor-analyses that the traits of effective teachers were respect for students, ability to challenge students, and having both organizational and presentation skills. Moreover, teacher personality predicts teacher self-efficacy in both pre-service and in-service teachers (Henson & Chambers, 2013; Jamil, Downer, &Pianta, 2012;
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Ripski, LoCasale-Crouch, & Decker, 2011). At the tertiary education level, teacher personality is associated with student evaluations of teaching (Kim &MacCann, 2016). TEACHER PERSONALITY AND TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS Teacher effectiveness is a multi-dimensional construct, consisting of various elements of the profession, which cannot be captured by a single criterion (e.g., student academic achievement). The paradigm shift in the nature of the teacher effectiveness construct is reflected in recent studies that aim to cover a wide outcome criterion space by using multiple measures from different sources. For example, the large-scale Measures of Effective Teaching project assessed teacher effectiveness using value- added student academic achievement, teacher class observation ratings, and student- ratings (Kane, McCaffrey, Miller, &Staiger, 2013). We assessed two of the three elements included in the project: studentratings of teacher support and value-added student academic achievement. We additionally assessed student performance self-efficacy, which are student self-ratings of how well they will perform in the subject, given its important links to student motivation (Bandura, 2012).
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