In contrast by allowing to the heads of offices some

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In contrast, by allowing to the heads of offices some power to transfer funds within their respective offices, the Constitution itself ensures the fiscal autonomy of their offices, and at the same time maintains the separation
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POLITICAL LAW CASE DIGESTS 272 of powers among the three main branches of the Government. The 1973 Constitution explicitly and categorically prohibited the transfer of funds from one item to another, unless Congress enacted a law authorizing the President, the Prime Minister, the Speaker, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the heads of the Constitutional omissions to transfer funds for the purpose of augmenting any item from savings in another item in the GAA of their respective offices. The leeway was limited to augmentation only, and was further constricted by the condition that the funds to be transferred should come from savings from another item in the appropriation of the office. On July 30, 1977, President Marcos issued PD No. 1177, providing in its Section 44 that: Section 44. Authority to Approve Fund Transfers. The President shall have the authority to transfer any fund appropriated for the different departments, bureaus, offices and agencies of the Executive Department which are included in the General Appropriations Act, to any program, project, or activity of any department, bureau or office included in the General Appropriations Act or approved after its enactment. The President shall, likewise, have the authority to augment any appropriation of the Executive Department in the General Appropriations Act, from savings in the appropriations of another department, bureau, office or agency within the Executive Branch, pursuant to the provisions of Article VIII, Section 16 (5) of the Constitution. In Demetria v. Alba, however, the Court struck down the first paragraph of Section 44 for contravening Section 16(5)of the 1973 Constitution, ruling: Paragraph 1 of Section 44 of P.D. No. 1177 unduly over-extends the privilege granted under said Section 16. It empowers the President to indiscriminately transfer funds from one department, bureau, office or agency of the Executive Department to any program, project or activity of any department, bureau or office included in the General Appropriations Act or approved after its enactment, without regard as to whether or not the funds to be transferred are actually savings in the item from which the same are to be taken, or whether or not the transfer is for the purpose of augmenting the item to which said transfer is to be made. It does not only completely disregard the standards set in the fundamental law, thereby amounting to an undue delegation of legislative powers, but likewise goes beyond the tenor thereof. Indeed, such constitutional infirmities render the provision in question null and void.
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