charter. He eventually destroyed the Bank in the 1830s by withholding all federal gold and silver deposits and putting them in smaller banks instead. Without any reserves, the Bank withered until its charter expired in 1836. Deprived of stable credit, the blossoming financial sector of the economy crashed in the Panic of 1837 . Bank War A conflict between Andrew Jackson and Henry Clay over 1832 legislation that was intended to renew the charter of the Bank of the United States . Clay pushed the bill through Congress, hoping it would slim Jackson’s reelection chances: signing the charter would cost Jackson support among southern and western voters who opposed the bank, whereas vetoing the charter would alienate wealthier eastern voters. Jackson vetoed the bill, betting correctly that his supporters in the South and West outnumbered the rich in the East. Upon reelection, Jackson withheld all federal deposits from the Bank, rendering it essentially useless until its charter expired in 1836. Black Hawk War A brief 1832 war in Illinois in which the U.S. Army trounced Chief Black Hawk and about 1,000 of his Sauk and Fox followers, who refused to be resettled according to the Indian Removal Act. Burned-Over District An area of western New York State that earned its nickname as a result of its especially high concentration of hellfire-and-damnation revivalist preaching in the 1830s. The Burned-Over District was the birthplace of many new faiths, sects, and denominations, including the Mormon church and the Oneida community . Religious zeal also made the area a hotbed for reform movements during the 1840s. Cohens v. Virginia An 1821 Supreme Court ruling that set an important precedent reaffirming the Court’s authority to review all decisions made by state courts. When the supreme court of Virginia found the Cohen brothers guilty of illegally selling lottery tickets, the brothers appealed their case to the U.S. Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall heard the case and ruled against the family. Though he concurred with the state court’s decision, he nonetheless cemented the Supreme Court’s authority over the state courts. This case was one of many during the early 1800s in which Marshall expanded the Court’s and the federal government’s power. Compromise Tariff of 1833 A tariff, proposed by Henry Clay , that ended the Nullification Crisis dispute between Andrew Jackson and South Carolina. The compromise tariff repealed the Tariff of Abominations and reduced duties on foreign goods gradually over a decade to the levels set by the Tariff of 1816.
- Fall '15
- Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, President Andrew Jackson