Individuals to look overseas for alternative sources

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individuals to look overseas for alternative sources of resourcesand commodities. (Archer 37)-According to Archer, industrialism is essentially an extension ofcity-based merchant culture to the realm of actual production; ifthere was profit to be made, there would be people to seek it,resulting in productive and commercial innovation. (Archer 37)-The (European) Industrial Revolution (beginning ca. 1750) involvedmajor innovations in three important areas: supply of productivepower, the organization and technology of production, and themodes and networks of transportation. (Archer 37)Powering New Forms of City-based Production-The first innovation of note for industrial cities involved thesupply of productive power through the innovation and expansionof transportation, which greatly expanded the hinterlands ofcities. (Archer 38)-This expansion in the supply of productive power also dramaticallychanged the economic efficiencies of city location and the builtand social morphologies of industrial city life; in turn,encouraging the further concentration of populations withincertain geographical boundaries. (Archer 38)-The second innovation of note involves the organization andtechnology of production; part of this has already been dealtwith in terms of the maturing social division of labor ofincreasingly specialized production, where the emphasis hasbecome how a good is produced. (Archer 38)-Pre-industrialization, the bulk of manufacturing was accomplishedthrough artisanal production; where producers could limit thenumber of skilled producers through apprenticeship programs.However, there was a disadvantage to this system, in that only a
limited amount of goods could be produced at relatively highprices. (Archer 38)-Cottage production (sometimes called the “putting out” system ofproduction”) had a disadvantage in the unevenness of quality andtiming of output. (Archer 38)-With industrialization, artisan (cottage) production gave way to aproduction process that split the manufacturing of commoditiesinto steps, each one produced by a different worker, as describedand championed by Adam Smith (1723 to 1790), one of the firsteconomic thinkers. (Archer 39)-This collectivized, process-based manufacturing process, orassembly line of production was much more efficient in the sensethat a greater number of commodities could be produced than whatwas originally possible through the older artisanal methods ofproduction. (Archer 39)-The assembly line process of production gradually became moreestablished in all sectors of industrializing economies, andthus, had enormous implications for city life, in terms of theimpact it had on skilled workers. Workers became more replaceableand cheap as a consequence of this de-skilled system. (Archer 39)Deskilling the New City-based Factory Worker-This new assembly line method of production necessitated a rapidincrease in un-skilled workers, who were just then migrating tothese cities as a result of population growth and a lack ofopportunities in rural areas. (Archer 40)-These poor individuals began to fill up and facilitated in the

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Term
Winter
Professor
Walter J. Nicholls
Tags
Economics, The Land, Merchant, archer, Kevin Archer

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