The five core job characteristics do not affect all people in the same way

The five core job characteristics do not affect all

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The five core job characteristics do not affect all people in the same way. Rather than accept the notion that enriched jobs should be good for everyone, Hackman and Oldham take a contingency view that suggests enriched jobs will lead to positive outcomes only for those persons who are a good match for them— the person-job fit issue again. "Fit" in the job characteristics model is based on the three moderators shown in Figure 6.5. The first is growth-need strength, or the degree to which a person desires the opportunity for self-direction, learning, and personal accomplishment at work. The expectation here is that people high in growth-need strengths will respond positively to enriched jobs, whereas people low in growth-need strengths will find enriched jobs to be sources of anxiety. The second moderator is knowledge and skill. People whose capabilities fit the demands of enriched jobs are predicted to feel good about them and perform well. Those who are inadequate or who feel inadequate in this regard are likely to experience difficulties. The third moderator is context satisfaction, or the extent to which an employee is satisfied with aspects of the work setting such as salary, quality of supervision, relationships with co-workers, and working conditions. In general, people who are satisfied with job context are more likely to do well in enriched jobs. ... research provides the following answers for three common questions about job enrichment and its applications. (1) Should everyone's job be enriched? The answer is clearly "No." The logic of individual differences suggests that not everyone will want an enriched job. Individuals most likely to have positive reactions to job enrichment are those who need achievement, who exhibit a strong work ethic, or who are seeking higher-order growth-need satisfaction at work. Job enrichment also appears to work best when the job context is positive and when workers have the abilities needed to do the enriched job. Costs, technological constraints, and workgroup or union opposition may also make it difficult to enrich some jobs. (2) With so much attention on teams in organizations today, can job enrichment apply to groups? The answer is "Yes." The result is called a self managing team. (3) For those who don't want an enriched job, what can be done to make their work more motivating? One answer rests in the following section and its focus on alternative work schedules. Even if the job content can't be changed, a redesign of the job context or setting may have a positive impact on motivation and performance. ... A compressed workweek is any schedule that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. ... Another alternative is some form of flexible working hours or flextime that gives individuals daily choice in work hours. A common flex schedule requires certain hours of "core" time but leaves employees free to choose their remaining hours from flexible time blocks.
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