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-Scotoma: Blind spot (Black spot that blurs vision). Hallmark of AMD -Affects older adults -It’s a degenerative disease: it gets worse with time -It affects the macula: central portion of the back of the eye. The small patch full of photoreceptors is what’sneeded for us to see well enough to do everything. Treatment options: -Many forms of rehabilitation -Carrots? Can they help you see? Vitamins: The Beta-carotene present in carrots If you have AMD it may be beneficial for you to take vitamin supplements. Ex: “PreserVision” and “Vitalux” multivitamins: Have AREDS formula Been tested in large clinical trial and it has been shown to do something quite interesting: oIt CAN help slow down the progression of intermediate to advanced AMD. BUT oIt CAN’Treverse the course of AMD oIt CAN’Tprevent the disease in the first place. Beta-carotene has been replaced by Lutein and Zeaxanthin because Beta-carotene shown to increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers Not everyone responds to AREDS formula. How can we determine who does and who doesn’t respond to this formula? -DNA!
CHEM 181 Winter 2019 Malka A-r 78 There are specific changes to your DNA that plays a big role in preventing risk for increasing AMD. Pharmacogenetics: Some people have the mutations necessary that will allow them to respond to the AREDS formula. •Some studies show that AREDs formula DOES NOT slow down the progression of intermediate or late AMD •Studies show that Zinc which is present in the AREDS formula accelerates progression of the disease in patients with certain in the CFH gene. •Different group of researchers claiming that a reexamination of the original data shows no effect of these mutations on whether or not AREDS formula works People in the scientific community have not agreed on the effects of AREDs formula in AMD. Science is dirty and imperfect; there is almost never one clear and unambiguous answer. The truth can be touched, but never fully grasped. Clinicians must make decisions based on imperfect body of work. This is why medicine often consists of probabilities and judgement calls. Science and medicine: A little like the blind leading the blind. To wrap up, AREDS does seem to slow down progression of intermediate AMD, but whether or not some patients –because of their genetic makeup- benefit even more from it, or actually harm from it remains an open question! TOPIC FIVE: FOOD ADDITIVES Lesson 1: Food Additives I Video 1 Additives: Improve food’s quality and preservation process The media scares us of additives. oBillboard in Halifax had an ad for a beverage that said: Made with no caffeine, sodium or scientists”oNews article in France: « Une cire toxique sur les fruits et légumes » (A toxic wax on fruits and vegetables).
CHEM 181 Winter 2019 Malka A-r 79 Wax on fruits Many fruits have wax: -Pineapple -Avocado -Bell peppers -Passionfruit -Lemons Etc.