causes of intestinal obstruction may include adhesions in the abdomen that form after surgery, an inflamed intestine (Crohn's disease), diverticulitis, hernias, and colon cancer. The patient usually presents with sudden onset of cramp pain. Vomiting usually occurs early with small intestinal obstruction and late with large bowel obstruction. Obstipation occurs with a complete obstruction, but diarrhea can be present with a partial obstruction (Dains, et al, 2016). Hyperactive, high-pitched bowel sounds can be present with a small bowel obstruction. A mass may be palpable in a lower obstruction. Abdominal distention can be present. Definitive diagnosis is made with abdominal x-rays, CT scan, or MRI. 3) Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - is a common disorder that is characterized by abdominal cramping, abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and altered bowel habits, consisting of diarrhea or constipation or alternating between diarrhea and constipation (Hurd, et al., 2013). The patient with IBS will have a normal bowel examination and the stool will be negative for blood. If the onset of IBS is at middle age or older, if the stool is positive for blood, if there is a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, or if the patient fails to show improvement of symptoms after 6 to 8 weeks of therapy a proctosigmoidoscopy or barium enema (BE) should be considered (Dains, et al).
7 References Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2015). Seidel's guide to physical examination (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2016). Advanced health assessment and clinical diagnosis in primary care (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Hurd, M., Schwartz, M. E. . M. D. . M. A. . P. D., & Ó, M. C. A. . M. A. . M. D. . M. S. . D. S. (2013). Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Magill’s Medical Guide (Online Edition). Retrieved from Walden Library Database Mayo Clinic. (2018). Intestinal obstruction. Retrieved from
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