Electrons in the highest energy level are called

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Electrons in the highest energy level are called valence electrons. Number of valence electrons governs an atom’s bonding behavior. Q: What is the max number of valence electrons for a full valence shell? Atoms are much more stable, or less reactive, with a full valence shell. This stability can be achieved one of two ways: - ________ bond - ________ bond By moving electrons, the two atoms become linked. This is known as chemical bonding . Images: Carbon, Universe Today Website From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Three Main Types of Chemical Bonds: 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ Image: Formation of ionic sodium fluoride , Wdcf; Methane Covalent Bonds , Dynablast, Wiki; DNA Chemical Structure , Madprime, Wiki From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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_______ Bonds Involves transfer of electrons between two atoms. Found mainly … inorganic compounds. Images: Sodium Chloride , University of Winnepeg Ion = an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. Q: What are positively charged ions (+) called? __________ Q: What are negatively charged ions (-) called? __________ From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Ions: Acids & Bases An _____ is any ionic compound that releases ________ _____ (H + ) in solution. A _____ is any ionic compound that releases _______ _____ ( - OH) in solution. From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Acidity of a solution > measured by concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). pH ranges : 0 (very _______) to 14 (very ________). Change in just one unit of scale = tenfold change in H+ concentration. If concentration of H+ = OH - … neutral. Measurements of Acidity & Alkalinity ( pH ) Images: pH scale , Edward Stevens, Wiki From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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An acid is any ionic compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Weak acids have a sour taste. Strong acids are highly corrosive (So don’t go around taste-testing acids.) Examples: Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 , Vitamin C) Citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 , a weak organic acid in citrus fruits) Phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 , in pop…this stuff is also used to remove rust…hmmm) Ions &Acids Images: pH scale , Edward Stevens, Wiki From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Images: Strong Acids , Department of Chemistry, CSU From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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From the Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com
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Ions & Bases A base is an ionic compound that releases hydroxyl ions (OH-) in solution. Bases are also called _____________ substances. Some general properties of bases include: Taste: Bitter taste (opposed to sour taste of acids and sweetness of aldehydes and ketones). Touch: Slimy or soapy feel on fingers. Reactivity: Strong bases are caustic on organic matter, react violently with acidic substances. Examples: Sodium hydroxide , NaOH, of lye or caustic soda used in oven cleaners.
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