Average number and rate of people each month on

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Average Number and Rate of People Each Month on Maternity and Paternity Leave: United States, 1994 2015 Year Maternity Leave, No. (SE) Paternity Leave, No. (SE) Births, No. No. on Maternity Leave per 10 000 Births No. on Paternity Leave per 10 000 Births 1994 278 454 (11 735) 5 798 (1 695) 3 952 767 704.5 14.7 1995 263 655 (11 419) 5 696 (1 680) 3 899 589 676.1 14.6 1996 271 878 (11 596) 6 365 (1 776) 3 891 494 698.6 16.4 1997 275 866 (11 680) 7 019 (1 864) 3 880 894 710.8 18.1 1998 287 459 (11 923) 7 435 (1 919) 3 941 553 729.3 18.9 1999 275 644 (11 676) 6 850 (1 842) 3 959 417 696.2 17.3 2000 291 440 (12 005) 9 745 (2 197) 4 058 814 718.0 24.0 2001 258 468 (11 307) 9 953 (2 220) 4 025 933 642.0 24.7 2002 256 040 (11 254) 9 780 (2 201) 4 021 726 636.6 24.3 2003 261 437 (11 371) 13 213 (2 558) 4 089 950 639.2 32.3 2004 257 717 (11 290) 10 946 (2 328) 4 112 052 626.7 26.6 2005 256 562 (11 265) 12 122 (2 450) 4 138 349 620.0 29.3 2006 292 164 (12 020) 13 016 (2 539) 4 265 555 684.9 30.5 2007 294 463 (12 067) 18 915 (3 061) 4 316 233 682.2 43.8 2008 295 385 (12 086) 18 592 (3 034) 4 247 694 695.4 43.8 2009 284 191 (11 855) 18 999 (3 067) 4 130 665 688.0 46.0 2010 279 099 (11 749) 14 673 (2 696) 3 999 386 697.9 36.7 2011 237 761 (10 845) 16 381 (2 848) 3 953 590 601.4 41.4 2012 265 934 (11 469) 21 156 (3 237) 3 952 841 672.8 53.5 2013 258 978 (11 318) 20 048 (3 151) 3 932 181 658.6 51.0 2014 268 938 (11 533) 19 411 (3 100) 3 985 924 674.7 48.7 2015 299 861 (12 177) 21 703 (3 278) 3 977 745 753.8 54.6 Average 273 245 (11 620) 13 083 (2 488) 4 033 380 677.6 32.3 Source. Number of births from US Vital Statistics. 31,32 Standard errors calculated using values from the US Bureau of Labor Statistic s Table 1-D. 27 AJPH RESEARCH March 2017, Vol 107, No. 3 AJPH Zagorsky Peer Reviewed Research 461
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when paid leave was instituted in California, New Jersey, and Rhode Island; and a binary variable indicating when the US economy was in an economic recession as declared by the National Bureau of Economic Research. 30 We performed all statistical analysis with SAS Enterprise version 4.3 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC). We reported results as signi fi cant if P was less than or equal to .05. We per- formed mean comparisons by using a 2-tailed student t test, via SAS s PROC TTEST function. RESULTS As shownin Table 1, the average number of womenintheUnitedStatesonmaternity leave from 1994 to 2015 exhibited no trend over time. On average, 273 000 women (95% con fi dence interval [CI]= 250 000, 296 000) took maternity leave in the typical month. The average number of men on paternity leave each month was 13 000. Unlike ma- ternity leave, paternity leave has grown; rising from 5800 men per month in 1994 to 22 000 per month in 2015, a more than 3-fold increase. Table 1 shows the numbers of births per year in the United States. From 1994 to 2007, births followed a rising trend, increasing from 3.95 million to 4.32 million. Since the 2007 peak, births have fallen and in 2015 were less than 4 million. The correlation between the number of women each year on maternity leave and births is 0.377 ( P = .08), indicating a positive but not statistically signi fi cant re- lationship between births and women on leave. Table 1 shows the rate of men and women on leave per 10 000 births. For every 10 000 babies born in a year, about 700 parents (677 women and 32 men) in a typical month were on leave. Visual and statistical analyses revealed no statistically signi fi cant trend over time in the rate of women on maternity leave in either monthly or yearly data.
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