Significantly faster to respond compared to when the

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significantly faster to respond compared to when the same word was presented the first time (i.e., inthe baseline condition). The first occurrence of the word appears to prepare, or prime, the nervoussystem to future perceptions of the stimulus. Because repetition priming is perfectly normal in patientswith hippocampal damage, it is thought to reflect hippocampus-independent perceptual memory.Trial 4 illustrates a situation in which one anticipatessemantic primingeffects. For these trials theletter-string is a new word that is meaningfully-related to the previous word. For this type of trial, it istypical for people to respond more quickly than for the baseline condition. This facilitation is not due toa mere repetition effect, because HAIR is not the same word as COMB. Instead, the priming effect isthe result of the relatedness of the meanings, or semantics, of the two words. Like repetition priming,semantic priming reflects the influence of hippocampus-independent perceptual memory in theneocortex.PROCEDURAL MEMORYYou are already familiar with the last type of hippocampus-independent memory because it wasintroduced in the previous lecture on the basal ganglia. I am, of course, referring to memory for howto do things -procedural memory.In Lecture 18 you learned how the mirror-drawing task can be used as a means of assessingprocedural memory, and you learned that patients with damage to the basal ganglia exhibit impairedprocedural memory. By contrast, amnesic patients with damage limited to the hippocampus do notdemonstrate impaired procedural memory. For this reason, procedural memory is considered a formof hippocampus-independent memory.
REED 3310 Lecture 196Although the mirror-drawing task has been used tostudy procedural memory, many other tasks havealso contributed to our understanding of thephenomenon. For example, we can simply presentpeople with a special text passage and record howquickly they are able to read the passage. Im sureyou will have more difficulty than usual whenreading the sentence presented to the right, and Imsure I dont need to explain why. Nevertheless, aspeople get more and more practice withmirrorreading, they learn to do it faster and faster. In addition, amnesic patients with hippocampal damageexhibit perfectly normal improvements when given experience with mirror reading. This indicates thatthecognitive skillassociated with accomplished mirror reading results from procedural memory, andlike mirror drawing appears to be supported by the basal ganglia.Another task used to demonstrate procedural memory is theweather prediction task. On each trialof the weather prediction task, a participant is shown one or more of the four cards shown below. Theparticipant’s task is to use the cards to predict whether it will be sunny or rainy. After a prediction ismade, the participant is given feedback about his accuracy, and then the next trial begins with adisplay of a new combination of cards. If a participant learns to use the cards as effective cues, the

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