Importance happened on this day august 2 doi

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importance happened on this day” August 2: DOI officially signed (56 signatures) - divided loyalties Loyalists: don’t support independence b/c they’re skeptical about how the colonies will go on w/o Britain Patriots Neutrals: most of them didn’t care, treated the worst b/c they weren’t on anyone’s side Dec 25 th 1776-Washington crosses the Delaware river and ambushes a group of German soldiers fighting for the English (Hessians) in the middle of the night VI.) The Important Battles: changed things for the Americans - Saratoga, October 17, 1777 English General: John Burgoyne- has a 3 point plan to attack Albany, NY to divide new England from the rest of the colonies, tries to get all the Americans surrounded and to get them to surrender; Burgoyne is the only English general to march to Albany, stopped in Saratoga and is surrounded and trapped and forced to surrender, led to F/A Alliance American Generals: Horatio Gates (really wants Washington’s job), Benedict Arnold (traitor): fantastic General, Nathaniel Greene - Franco-American Alliance, 1778 First nation to openly recognize the United States of America as a separate country; France sends money & supplies Spain, Holland, Russia & Germany side w/colonies w/o French colonies wouldn’t have won independence, France motive=revenge - The war moves south a lot of loyalists in south feels like a civil war - Yorktown, October 19, 1781 General Charles Cornwallis (English) & Nathaniel Greene: Greene follows Cornwallis to Yorktown, Cornwallis calls for help but doesn’t get any so he surrenders Last major battle of RW VII.) Treaty of Paris, 1783-Ends Revolutionary War and gives the colonies independence from Great Britain
EARLY GOVERNMENT I.) The Elite Vision - planters, merchants, men of education -- Jefferson, Washington, Adams, Franklin - goal: personal advancement - feared executive corruption - upper House - elections based on status and character II.) The Democratic Vision - artisans, small farmers - goal: restructure society - weak or no executive - a legislature of the people - more democracy - elections based on issues III.) State Constitutions - Massachusetts -- conservative - Pennsylvania -- democratic IV.) Articles of Confederation - first American government - created united States of America - Congress : declare war, conduct foreign affairs and make treaties - unicameral legislature 15 - one vote per state - diplomacy - borrowing of money - valuation of money - Indian trade - disputes between states - maritime commerce - NO executive - Problems: - govt. by committee - unanimous consent
- no power to tax V.) Successes and Failures - Northwest Ordinance - new states equal - freedom of religion - trial by jury - no slavery - Financial problems - Treaty of Paris - Indian lands - Shays' Rebellion, 1787—Time for Something THE CONSTITUTION I.) The Miracle at Philadelphia - 1787 - men of substance - George Washington: voluntarily gave up power; delegates realized how reliable he is so they make him President of the convention; it’s his job to keep outside voices out - Benjamin Franklin: 86- trustworthy

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