Lecture 33 – Endocrine Physiology II

Actonendocrine cells in the apg to affect the

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actonendocrine cells in the APG to affect the secretion of tropic hormones bt the APG includes PRH  – stimulates the APG to release the tropic hormone prolactin which stimulates  breat development and milk production PIH  – dopamine Inhibits the release of prolactin TRH  – stimulates release of thyroid stimuling hormone (TSH)by the APG TSH stimulates the seretion of hyriod hormones T3 and T3 which regulate metabolism CRH  – stimulates the relaase of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) by the APG ACTH stimulaes cells in the adrenal gland to secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol Cortisol is the main hormone that regulates metabolism during periods of stress
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GHRH  – stimulats the secretion of growth hormone (GH) by the APG GH regulates growth and energy metabolism but also acts as a tropic hormone by  stimulating the secretion of insulin-like growth factors (UGFs) by the liver GHIH –  aka somatostatin inhibits secretion of GH by the APG – decreases ecretion of  IGFs by the liver GnRH –  stimultates the release of the gonadotropins (LH and FSH)  LH stimulates ovulation in females and the secretion of sex hormones by the gonads FSH prootes the development of eggs and sperm and stimulates secretion of estrogens  in females and inhibin in both sexes Thyroid Gland Produces two iodine containing hormones T4 is generally converted into T3 in the thyroid Iodide is cotransported with sodium into the follicle cell Difues through the follicle cell and then is attached to rings of tyrosines Makes t3 and t4 T3 and T4 are lipophilic and readily cross plasma membranes  Receptors are found in the nuclei of target cells Binding of TH to receptors alters transcription rates
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Protein synthesis Primary action is to raise the basic metabolic rte (BMR)  BMR is the rate of oxygen consumption and energy expenditure at rest
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