936973 c society and the church 1 within these new

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936–973)C. Society and the Church1. within these new kingdoms:a. highly fragmented, decentralized societyb. great local variationc. landowning warrior elite exercised power2. social hierarchiesa. lesser lords and knights became vassals of kings or great lordsb. serfdom displaced slavery3. Catholic Church was a major element of stabilitya. hierarchy modeled on that of the Roman Empireb. became very richc. conversion of Europe’s non-Christiansd. most of Europe was Christian (with pagan elements) by 1100
4. Church and ruling class usually reinforced each other
a series of invasions in 700–1000 hindered European development
2. ecological changes, 1000–1300
3. High Middle Ages: time of clear growth and expansiona. European population in 1000 was about 35 million; about 80 million in 1340b. opening of new land for cultivation4. growth of long-distance trade, from two major centersa. northern Europe b. northern Italian townsc. great trading fairs (especially in Champagne area of France) enabled exchange betweennorthern and southern merchants
5. European town and city populations rose
6. growth of territorial states with better organized governments
7. new opportunities for women
c. opportunities declined by the fifteenth centuryd. religious life: nuns, Beguines, anchoresses (e.g., Hildegard of Bingen and Julian ofNorwich) e. but opportunities for religious women were also curtailed8. new ideas about masculinity: from warrior to “provider”E. Europe Outward Bound: The Crusading Tradition1. medieval expansion of Christendom after 1000a. occurred at the same time that Byzantium declinedb. clearance of land, especially on eastern fringe of Europec. Scandinavian colonies in Newfoundland, Greenland, Icelandd. Europe had direct, though limited, contact with East and South Asia bythirteenth–fourteenth centuries2. Crusade movement began in 1095a. wars at God’s command, authorized by the pope, for which participants received anindulgence (release from penalty for confessed sins)b. amazingly popular; were religious wars at their core3. most famous Crusades aimed to regain Jerusalem and holy placesa. many waves of Crusaders to the Near Eastb. creation of four small Christian states (last fell in 1291)c. showed Europe’s growing organizational abilitySignificance:

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