Glycolysis will proceed forwards to produce ATP in the N cells since the energy

Glycolysis will proceed forwards to produce atp in

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-Glycolysis will proceed forwards to produce ATP in the N cells since the energy chare is low, in attempt to produce more energy. C. ( 6 Points ) Which 3 enzymes discussed in class, are involved in major rate limiting steps during glycolysis towards pyruvate? What are the reactants and products for each step? Answer: Hexokinase (HK), PhosphoFructoKinase (PFK), Pyruvate Kinase (PK) D. ( 2 Points ) How would the regulation or activity of each of these three enzyme(s) be affected DIRECTLY (by molecules in the formula for energy charge) if the energy charge is low, in the 0.6-0.7 range? Answer: - ATP, ADP, and AMP together do NOT regulate Hexokinase (HK) -ADP, and AMP positively regulates PFK -ATP negatively regulates PFK -ATP negatively regulates PK E. ( 2 Points ) How would the regulation or activity of each of these three enzyme(s) be affected INDIRECTLY , by factors other than those that contribute to the energy charge, if the energy charge is low, in the 0.6-0.7 range? Answer: Glucose 6 Phosphate (G6P) negatively regulates Hexokinase (HK) -F2,6 BP positively regulates PFK -Citrate negatively regulates PFK -F1,6 BP positively regulates PK -Acetyl CoA, Alanine, and cAMP phosphyorylation negatively regulates PK Problem 2. ( 23 Points ) A. ( 4 Points ) Write a mass balance of Glucose to Pyruvate. Include ADP, ATP, NAD + , NADH, Glucose, Pyruvate. See Figure 1, Appendix. Answer: Glucose + 2ATP + 2NAD + + 4ADP à 2Pyruvate + 4ATP + 2NADH B. ( 3 Points ) You continue to study the N and C cells from Problem 1. You notice some differences between the N and C cells. Initially, the C cells are quiet; however, the metabolism appears to change over time. You remember two important facts: - The NAD + /NADH ratio is critical regulator of oxidative state.
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  • Fall '19
  • Glycolysis, Adenosine triphosphate, pentose phosphate pathway

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