and main features of typewriters for the 20th century: a movmg carnage, the ability 10 see the characters being typed, a shift function for upper-case characters, and a replaceable inked ribbon.' • Leica's Ur-Leica camera launched in Germany in 1924 established key fea-tures of the 35 nun camera, though ii was not until Canon began mass-pro-ducing cameras based on the Leica original that this design of 35 mm e.1mera came 10 dominate still photography. • When Ray Kroc opened his first McDonald's hamburger resta uram in Illinois in 1955, he established what would soon become a dominant design for the fast-food n:staurant industry: a limited menu, no waiter service, eat-in and take-out options. roadside locations for motorized customers. and a franchis-ing model uf business system licensing. The c·oncepts of domi11c1111 design and technical standard are related but dis1inc1. Dominant design refers 10 the overall configuration of a product or system. ,. .a....CHAPrER 8 INDUSTRY EVOLUTION ANO STRATEG IC CHANGE 209 A technical standard is a technology or specification that is impo rtant for compa1-ibility. While technical standards typically embody intellectual property in the form of patents or copyright. dominant designs usually do not. A dominant design may o r may not embody a technical standard. IBM's PC established both a d ominant design for personal co mp uters and the "Wimel" standard. Conversely, the Boeing 707 wa., a dominant design for large passenger jets but did not set industry standarcls in aerospace technology that would dominate subsequent generatio ns of airp la nes . Technical standards emerge where there are network effects -he need for user,, to connect in some way with one another. Network effects cause each custo mer lO choose the same technology as everyone else to avoid being stranded. Unlike a pro-prietary technical standard, which is typically embodied in patents o r copyrights , :t firm that se ts a dominant design does not normally own intellectual property in that design. Hence, except for some early-mover advantage, there is not necessarily a ny profit advantage from setting a dominant design. Dominant designs also exist in processes. In the flat glass industry there has been a succession o f dominant process designs from glass cylinder blowing to contin uous ribbo n drawing to float glass.' Dominant designs are present, too, in busin<:ss models. In many new markets, competition is between rival business models. In home g ro-cery delivery. e-commerce start-ups such as \Vebvan and Pe-.ipod soon succumbed to competition from "bricks and clicks" retailers such as Giant, and Walmart (and Tesco in the UK).