and main f ea tures of t ypew rit ers for the 20th ce ntury a m ov mg ca rn age

And main f ea tures of t ypew rit ers for the 20th ce

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and main f ea tures of t ypew rit ers for the 20th ce ntury: a m ov mg ca rn age, the ability 10 see the characters being ty ped, a shift f un ct io n for upp er -case charac ters, and a r ep lacea bl e inked ri bb on .' Leica's Ur - Le ica camera la unch ed in Ge rmany in 1924 es t ab li shed k ey fea- tur es of the 35 nun camera, though ii was not until Canon b eg an m ass- pro- ducing cameras based on the Leica original that this de sign of 35 mm e. 1mera came 10 dominate still photograph y. When Ray Kr oc ope ned his fi rst McDonald's h amb ur ge r r es ta uram in Illinois in 1955, he est ab li sh ed what wo uld soo n beco me a dominant d es ign fo r th e fast-food n:staurant industry: a li mit ed m en u, no waiter se rvice, ea t-in and take-out op tions. ro ads i de locations fo r motorized customers. a nd a franchi s- ing m ode l uf business system licensing. The c·oncepts of domi 11 c 111 1 design a nd technica l standard ar e relat ed but dis1inc 1. Dominant des i gn refers 10 the overa ll co nfiguration of a p ro du ct or sys tem. ,. .a .... CHAPrER 8 INDUSTRY EVOLUT I ON ANO STRATE G IC CHANGE 2 09 A t ec hn i ca l stan da rd is a t ec hn ol ogy or specifica ti on that is impo rtant for co mp a1- ibilit y. While t ec hni cal sta nd ar ds typica ll y em body inte ll ec tual p ro p erty in th e form of patent s or co py ri g ht . dom inant desig ns usua ll y do not. A do min ant d es i gn ma y o r m ay not embody a t ec hn ical sta nd ard. IBM's PC es t ab lish ed bo th a d o min a nt de s ign for per son al co mp uters a nd th e "Wimel" stan da rd. Co n ve r se l y, th e B oei ng 707 wa ., a dom inant des i gn for lar ge p asse n ge r j ets but did not se t indu st ry stan darc ls in ae r ospace t ec hn ol ogy th at wou ld do min ate su bseq uent ge n era tio ns of a ir p la nes . T ec hni ca l stand ar ds emer ge where there are network effect s - he n eed fo r u se r,, to co n ne ct in so me way with one ano th er. Netwo rk eff ec ts ca u se eac h custo m er lO ch oo se the sa me t ec hn ol ogy as everyo ne el se to avo id be in g st ra nd ed. Unlike a p ro- pri e tar y t ec hn ica l sta nd ard, which is typ ically em bod ied in pate nts o r co p yr ig ht s , :t firm th at se ts a do min a nt des ign d oes not n or ma ll y o wn inte ll ec tu al pro p erty in th at des ign. Hen ce, ex ce pt for so me ea rl y-m ove r adva nt ag e, ther e is no t n ecessa rily a ny p ro fit ad va ntage fr om se tting a domina nt d es ign. D om i nan t des igns al so exi st in pr ocesses. In the fl at gl ass indu stry th ere ha s bee n a su cce ss ion o f do min a nt pr ocess d es ig ns from gl ass cy lin de r blow i ng to co nti n uo us ri bb o n dr a wi ng to fl oa t glass.' Dominant de si gns are pr ese n t, t oo , in busin <:ss m ode ls. In man y new ma rk ets, co m pe tition is betwee n rival b usi ness m ode ls. In home g r o- cery deliv ery. e-co mm er ce start- up s suc h as \ Ve bvan a nd P e-.i pod soo n su cc umb ed to co m pe tition from "bricks and click s" reta il ers s uch as Gia nt , a nd Wa lm art (a nd T es co in th e UK ).
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