Substage 4 (-12 months) Coordination of Secondary Schemes: Behaviour is planned, acting instead of reacting. Object exploration, first indication of true problem solving (means and task)
*Hide the toy under the blanket. Child will look for it if they see where you hide it but if you hide it under A a bunch of times, they won’t look under B. (9 months of age) Substage 5 (-18 months) Tertiary Circular Reaction: Actively experimenting with objects, recreating events in new ways (How ELSE can I make the duck quack?), trial and error (no real plan, Piaget doesn’t think they can string together thoughts yet. A not B errors gone, but if you hide it without showing them where it is they will just think it’s disappeared. Substage 6 (-24 months) Symbolic Problem Solving: No more trial and error, eg. child uses stick to grasp something out of reach. Schemes are mental now. No matter what, the child will look for the object. This is object permanence according to Piaget. Sensorimotor Accomplishments: Beginning of symbolic thought ( Capstone accomplishment) Deferred imitation (Forming a mental image and storing it for access later to do the same behaviour) and object permanence are part of this Critiques: Underestimation: Things could have been attributed to kids being unable to do motor tasks, having no response inhibition (A not B, they know it’s B but they keep doing A not because they don’t know it’s in b but because they can’t help themselves) Imitation: Piaget thought moving a finger up and down would constitute imitation. Meltzoff and Moore used a simplified action, had adults make faces at babies. Babies may or may not have repeated the action. Found that at substage 4 (9mos) will imitate all the time, before this it was haphazard, but still occurred about 50% of the time. Supports Piaget’s view mostly, but still showed evidence that the image appears before 9 months. Deferred Imitation: Collie and Hayne showed that 6 month olds will repeat an action later in time (pressing a red button that makes something interesting happen). Shows memory formation at 6 months of age, in substage 3, where they are supposed to only see object interactions by accident. Memory: Habituation/dishabituation, couldn’t do this without mental image and memory. Rovee-Collier discovered that 3 months old using the kicking mobile task would remember a week later. Disproves Piaget’s thought that memory formation and mental image didn’t appear in substages 1 or 2. Object Permanence: Again, tasks too difficult to show it. Babies in substage 4 look at B but search at A showing maybe response inhibition hasn’t developed and they are aware that it is in B. Piaget says substage 3 can’t string together schemes, but criticized by Baillargeon:
Baillargeon: Possible and impossible events. Fan rotating at 180 degrees away.
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- Fall '13
- Intelligence quotient, Theory of cognitive development