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Foreshadowed Republicans, who will come 6 years laterZachary Taylor wins, but Free Soil has respectable total (300,000 votes- though won not state for electoral) which shows increase of sectionalism
Crisis and CompromiseAdmission of CA causing an uproar (no slave state available for balance) Henry Clay “the great compromiser” puts together one more deal The Compromise of 1850◦California enters as free state◦Texas (slave) boundary with New Mexico (will be free) set to give Texas advantage in land◦Slave trade (not slavery) will be abolished in Washington DC◦A new – tougher- Fugitive Slave law will be enacted◦Rest of Mex. Cession will use popular sovereignty.
The Great DebateFamous Debate between Henry Clay/Stephen Douglas vs John C Calhoun (dying of TB). Daniel Webster (also dying) stepped in and helped swing North to accept the Compromise. Then Zachary Taylor died unexpectedly of an intestinal infection in 1850 (what is it with Whig Presidents?) Millard Fillmore new President, and he wants compromiseStephen Douglas cleverly introduces sections one at a time- realizing they are more likely to pass that way. (works)North gets the better side of the deal – CA as free state gives them the majority in Senate. Halt of slave trade in DC a big concession from gov’t that slavery is a problem. Fugitive Slave law is the only the really designed to make south happy- and it backfires in that if offends many people- and swells the numbers of abolitionists.Again, if South had left in 1850- they would have had a much better chance of winning. North got 10 more years to expand economically and gain support for union cause (it is southern actions in Kansas etc… that really fire them up)
Fugitive Slave ActRequired citizens to assist in recovery of slaves (you could be tried as accessory if you did not). Denied blacks right to trial by jury or to testify in their own defense. Made both sides angry- North b/c they were forced to agree to it (though not many followed it) and South b/c they knew North was avoiding, and therefore deliberately flouting the law)
Douglas and Popular SovereigntyBecoming very difficult to find a “national” candidate- if they have any views they are probably controversial- so Whigs and Democrats split along sectional lines. Whigs had never been really strong anyway- fell apart with death of Henry Clay and Daniel WebsterDemocrats in equally bad shape- firmly split between the N/S1852 Whigs ran General Winfield Scott (another Mex. War general- the only times they have won have been with generals)Democrats argued over who to run – in the end chose Franklin Pierce who spent a lot of time talking about maintaining the rights of all sections- and supporting the compromise of 1850, including fugitive slave lawPierce SPANKS Scott 254-42
Kansas Nebraska Act and New PartiesMost important short term cause of the Civil War1854 IL senator Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to create “Kansas” and “Nebraska” out of