temporary migrants, or without authorization, and subsequently qualified for l egal p ermanent r esidence either through special provisions such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 ( IRCA ) or by meeting normal immigration requirements and adjusting status . [end page 10] The INS data are believed to be quite complete, relatively timely (lags of one year), and require less indirect estimation than other immigration components.22 However, it is becoming increasingly more problematic to identify legal immigration , as defined by INS or DHS, with actual moves to the U nited S tates, as would be defined by the decennial census . Above all, rapid changes in the level of immigration and large fluctuations in temporary migration (especially in the 1990s) belie the assumption that difficult-to-measure temporary or undocumented arrivals can be approximated by the more measurable adjustments of status . A portion of this problem could be overcome by employing companion data on refugees, parolees, and asylees at time of entry, rather than time of adjustment. Race of immigrants is not available from administrative data, and has to be estimated, based on the race of arrivals for each country-of-birth category enumerated in the last census in the years preceding the census date. For a more complete description of the legal immigration data, see Appendix A. [***Footnotes in this card***] 21. For the 1940 to 1950 decade, estimates of net immigration were based on the intercensal cohort analysis of the foreign-born population in the 1940 and 1950 censuses. The INS data on immigration were judged to be deficient because of the massive net movement of refugees and parolees to the United States during the 1940s was incompletely recorded (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1988c). 22. No allowance is made for undercoverage of immigrants in the INS data used to construct the 2000 DA estimates.
The statutory definition of “immigrant” is LPR — our interp is the most precise understanding of the term. McKanders 10 (Karla Mari McKanders, Associate Professor at University of Tennessee College of Law, Identification of Race in the Law: Sustaining Tiered Personhood: Jim Crow and Anti-Immigrant Laws, 26 Harv. J. Racial & Ethnic Just. 163, Spring 2010) ("[ An 'immigrant' is defined by statute as] a noncitizen authorized to take up permanent residence in the U nited S tates. This is a subset of the group that common or journalistic usage often labels immigrants, meaning noncitizens who have been present for a while and wish to stay indefinitely, legally or illegally"). Legal immigration is the process of gaining legal permanent residence Deardorff and Blumerman 01 (Kevin E. Deardorff, was a Statistician at the U.S. Census Bureau in Suitland, Maryland and is among the highest-paid ten percent of employees in the U.S.
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- Immigration to the United States, visa, Human migration, Permanent residency