o Air pollution- low birth weight, premature birth o Lead- developmental disabilities o Mercury- slowed growth, cerebral palsy 1-2 weeks- Any problems could cause miscarriage- most vulnerability 3-8 weeks- major morphologic disabilities First 8 weeks greater vulnerability At week 9- experiencing more minor issues Journeys to Having a Baby Same sex couples, can create babies as well. Transgender and non-binary also capable to create
Invitro fertilization- eggs and sperm collected and artificially combined in a laboratory. Either in a dish or injected into an egg. Can use mothers egg, donor egg, family members egg. Same with sperm. Surrogacy- When a person agrees to bear a child for another person Newborns First thing, look at Apgar Score First measure one minute after birth- how well they did in general. Then another 5 minutes after birth- how well they are doing out in the world without being in uterus, breathing etc. Appearance- Pink, blue (lack oxygen), yellow Pulse- Over 100 BTW is a score of 2, less is 1, no pulse 0 Grimace (mild pinch)- Cries and pulls away score of 2, weak cry 1, no response 0 Activity- active, limited, no movement Respiration- Strong cry, slow/irregular/no breathing Normal score overall is going to be 7,8,9,10. All of these checked 1 minute and 5 minutes after Reflexes Blinking- bring light or loud noise, biological mechanism used to protect babies eyes Withdrawal reflex- pinched or pricked, occurs when baby withdrawals foot in response to pain Sucking- baby sucks object placed in or near mouth, precursor of feeding Babinski- toes fan our when bottom of foot is stroked from heel to toe. Unsure why this effect occurs, doesnt seem to function in current evolutionary history. Moro- when baby throws out their arms and throw them back in, responding to loud noise or falling. Used to cling on to mom is mom or baby is startled. Palmar- grasps when object is placed in palm of hand Rooting- when baby's cheek is stroked, turns head towards the stroke and open their mouth Prematurity Born less than 37 weeks 8% babies are born preterm Small-for-date babies- smaller than expected based on gestational age. Smaller you are, higher the risks Low birth weight- less than 2500 grams. Very low- less than 1500. Extremely low- less than 1000 (2lbs/3oz) Extremely low birth weight, many do not survive. Generally, premature infants are behind in development for the first 2-3 years, but they do catch up At McMaster- following babies that were born at ELBW, and comparing them to normal birthweight. These babies have been followed up to mid-late 30s. Stable depression, anxiety, withdrawn behaviour for ELBW, does not increase or decrease Normal birth weight, we see a decrease in internalizing problems across life span ELBW results in lower self esteem, and self esteem (in general) results in lower internalizing symptoms Self esteem mediates the relation between ELBW status and internalizing symptoms, but it does not mediate the relation between ELBW and externalizing problems
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- Fall '13
- Zygosity, Phenylketonuria