2. What are drives, according to Freud, and how do they influence behavior and psychic phenomena? A drive refers to an instinctual need that affects human behavior. Drive influences human behavior, as well as the psychic phenomena as the urge for a specific need, makes a person act in a particular manner. 3. Describe (briefly) the 3 structures of the personality, according to Freud. Personality is composed of id, ego and super-ego. According to Freud, id refers to the instinctual and primitive part of the human mind which harbors hidden memories, aggressiveness and sexual drive. The super-ego functions based on moral conscience. On the other hand, ego connects between super-ego and desires of the id. 4. How many stages of development did Freud posit? What is the earliest stage and the latest stage in the human life span? Freud suggested that there are five stages of development, which are oral, anal, latency, phallic and the genital stage. The earliest stage is oral, while the latest phase is genital. 5. What is the role of defense mechanisms in psychoanalytic theory? The role of the defense mechanism in psychoanalytic theory is to distort or deny reality so that one can defend against anxiety feelings. It helps one to maintain self-schema. 6. What is the difference between transference and identification? What role do you see them playing in development, within the psychoanalytic theory? The difference between transference and identification is that transference describes how a child may project some internalized behaviors and identity onto another person while identification is the process through which a person assimilates an attribute of others. The role that I see them playing in development, within the psychoanalytic theory is that they help the child to acquire knowledge from the environment by emulating desirable behaviors.
- Fall '08