MKTG Exam 2 Study Guide COLORS

The most defining element of a culture is its values

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conduct. (the most defining element of a culture is its values) Subculture = a homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group. Social Class = a group of people in a society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally, and who share behavioral norms. Social Influences On Consumer Buying Decisions Reference Group = a group in society that influences an individual’s purchasing behavior Primary Membership Group = a reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face-to-face manner, such as family, friends and co-workers (EX: Dustin & Abby) Secondary Membership Group = a reference group with which people associate less consistently and more formally than a primary membership group, such as a club, professional group or religious group (Advisors for aphi & school groups) Aspirational Reference Group = a group that someone would like to join Norm = a value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group Nonaspirational Reference Group = a group with which an individual does not want to associate Reference Groups have 3 important implications:
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1. They serve as information sources and influence perceptions 2. They affect an individual’s aspiration levels 3. Their Norms either constrain or stimulate consumer behavior Opinion Leader = an individual who influences the opinions of others Socialization Process = how cultural values and norms are passed down to children Individual Influences on Consumer Buying Decisions Personality = a way of organizing & grouping the consistencies of an individual’s reactions to situations Self-Concept = how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and self-evaluations Ideal Self-Image = the way an individual would like to be Real Self-Image = the way an individual actually perceives himself or herself Psychological Influences on Consumer Buying Decisions Perception = the process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture (Perception is how we see the world around us and how we recognize that we need some help in making a purchasing decision) Selective exposure = the process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others Selective Distortion = a process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs Selective retention = a process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that support his or her personal beliefs Motive = a driving forces that causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs = a method of classifying human needs and motivations into 5 categories in ascending order of importance (physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization) Learning = a process that creates changes in behavior, immediate or expected, through experience and practice Stimulus Generalization
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