When theodore roosevelt took office in 1901 panama

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When Theodore Roosevelt took office in 1901, Panama was part of Colombia. Secretary ofState John Hay negotiated a treaty with Tomas Herran of Columbia, calling for a paymentof $10,000,000 and annual payments of $250,000. The Senate ratified the agreement,but the Columbians, realizing that the U.S. was willing to invest $40 for the French rights,held out for more money and rejected the Hay-Herran Treaty. At about the same time, agroup of Panamanian revolutionaries saw an opportunity and revolted against theColumbian government. President Roosevelt likewise saw the developments as promisingand dispatched warships to the area and then quickly recognized Panamanianindependence.Negotiations quickly followed, and on February 23, 1904, the Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treatywas ratified. The agreement provided for a 10-mile-wide strip across Panama in returnfor a payment of $10 million and an annual fee of $250,000. Colombia lost $40 millionbut later received $25 million as partial compensation, which some called “guilt money.”There was much resentment among Latin American nations over TR’s “big stick”diplomacy. At home people call it “disgraceful” or “piracy.” In cabinet meeting Elihu Rootsaid to TR, “You were accused of seduction but proved you were guilty of rape.”Roosevelt later said, “I took the Canal Zone, started the canal and let Congress debate me.” In his mind, the endsjustified the means. TR wanted “to make the dirt fly” before the 1904 election.The Panama Canal was completed in 1914 at cost of $400 millionone of the world's engineering wonders. The workwas a major triumph directed by Colonel George W. Goethals, and the conquest of malaria and yellow fever byAmerican doctors in the tropical jungle was an outstanding achievement of preventive medicine. The canal stilloperates with the original equipment.Over the next several decades, until Presidents Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt pursued a “good neighbor” policy, theUnited States continued to intervene in Latin America, sending in United States Marines or warships whenever troubleappeared on the horizon. The resentment among Latin American peoples about the behavior of the “Colossus of theNorth” never fully abated, though relations have improved since the time of unilateralAmerican intervention in thebusiness of its southern neighbors.President Roosevelt traveled to Panama to observe the work on the canal, but he also kept his eye on the rest of theworld. When war broke out between Russia and Japan in 1904, Roosevelt was concerned about the implications forAmerican interests and offered to negotiate a settlement. He invited delegates from the two warring powers to meetin Portsmouth New Hampshire where he sponsored talks which eventually ended the Russo-Japanese War.
Shortly thereafter President Roosevelt intervened in a crisis in Morocco, sponsoring a conference at Algeciras to settledifferences between Germany and France. He persuaded Great Britain to attend a conference at Algeciras in Spain,

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Term
Fall
Professor
Miller

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