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Turns abstract concepts into concrete examples▫Compel the audience to take action•Weaknesses of pathos▫Emotions can add to a strong argument, but are not considered proof▫Certain kinds of emotional appeals (to fear, hatred, prejudice, etc) are considered unacceptable in college writing
Is Pathos Used Effectively?•Does the argument include words or images designed to move readers?•Does the argument use emotionally loaded language?•Does the argument include vivid descriptions or striking examples calculated to appeal to readers’ emotions?•Are the values and beliefs of the writer apparent in the argument?•Does the tone sound emotional?
Ethos – The Appeal to Authority•Persuasive because the argument is built upon the character or authority of the writer•Audiences determine whether or not the writer is worth listening to (has credibility):▫If the person making the argument is known to be honorable, truthful, knowledgeable, and trustworthy, audiences will accept the argument▫If the person making the argument is
Is Ethos Used Effectively?•Does the person making the argument demonstrate knowledge of the subject?•What steps does the person making the argument take to present its position as reasonable?•Does the argument seem fair?•If the argument includes sources, do they seem both reliable and credible? Does the argument include proper documentation?•Does the person making the argument demonstrate respect for opposing viewpoints?
The Rhetorical TriangleLogos (Logic/Reason)Focuses on the TextPathos (Emotions)Focuses on the AudienceEthos (Authority)Focuses on the Writer
The Rhetorical Triangle•Effective arguments employ logos, pathos, and ethos differently depending on:▫The Audience▫The Purpose▫The Situation•Some effective arguments use all three or choose just one or two. When multiple appeals are used they might be employed equally or one may be emphasized•The three appeals often work together (to varying degrees) to create effective argument
Defining Your Audience•When writing, you are writing for an audience▫May or may not agree with you•It is tempting to write for a general group of readers•However, defining your audience and keeping them in mind when you write helps you▫Decide what material to include▫Decide how to present it•This makes your argument more persuasive because the form and content is tailored to the specific audience
Audience Characteristics to Keep in Mind•Ideas about the subject•Perspectives•Preconceptions•Level of knowledge about the topic