Turns abstract concepts into concrete examples Compel the audience to take

Turns abstract concepts into concrete examples compel

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Turns abstract concepts into concrete examplesCompel the audience to take actionWeaknesses of pathosEmotions can add to a strong argument, but are not considered proofCertain kinds of emotional appeals (to fear, hatred, prejudice, etc) are considered unacceptable in college writing
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Is Pathos Used Effectively?Does the argument include words or images designed to move readers?Does the argument use emotionally loaded language?Does the argument include vivid descriptions or striking examples calculated to appeal to readers’ emotions?Are the values and beliefs of the writer apparent in the argument?Does the tone sound emotional?
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Ethos – The Appeal to AuthorityPersuasive because the argument is built upon the character or authority of the writerAudiences determine whether or not the writer is worth listening to (has credibility):If the person making the argument is known to be honorable, truthful, knowledgeable, and trustworthy, audiences will accept the argumentIf the person making the argument is
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Is Ethos Used Effectively?Does the person making the argument demonstrate knowledge of the subject?What steps does the person making the argument take to present its position as reasonable?Does the argument seem fair?If the argument includes sources, do they seem both reliable and credible? Does the argument include proper documentation?Does the person making the argument demonstrate respect for opposing viewpoints?
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The Rhetorical TriangleLogos (Logic/Reason)Focuses on the TextPathos (Emotions)Focuses on the AudienceEthos (Authority)Focuses on the Writer
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The Rhetorical TriangleEffective arguments employ logos, pathos, and ethos differently depending on:The AudienceThe PurposeThe SituationSome effective arguments use all three or choose just one or two. When multiple appeals are used they might be employed equally or one may be emphasizedThe three appeals often work together (to varying degrees) to create effective argument
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Defining Your AudienceWhen writing, you are writing for an audienceMay or may not agree with youIt is tempting to write for a general group of readersHowever, defining your audience and keeping them in mind when you write helps youDecide what material to includeDecide how to present itThis makes your argument more persuasive because the form and content is tailored to the specific audience
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Audience Characteristics to Keep in MindIdeas about the subjectPerspectivesPreconceptionsLevel of knowledge about the topic
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  • Spring '10
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