Lesson #1 : Carbohydrates Video 1 Macronutrients : Carbohydrates, fats and proteins Base on a 2000 calorie diet : - 65 g/day of fat - 60 g/day of protein - 240 g/day of complex carbohydrates - 50 g/day of sugar - = 415 g/day Problematic in North America with obesity is that all of the previous quantities are enhanced 10-15 times the amount. 4-5x more saturated fat. 36
Fats and oil has increased drastically 11% increase between 1970 to 2006 in the pounds per week consumed. It depends on the country - Dairy has decreased by 20% - - Meat/eggs: + 11% - Sugar: +17% - Fruit: +26% - Grains: +42% - Fats: +59% More food available in America overall. 37 Around 450g/pound
Video 2 The classic carbohydrate = sucrose or table “sugar” C 12 H 22 O 11 or C 12 (H2O) 11 Also known as carbo(hydrate) There are 8 OH groups and is highly soluble in water. “like dissolves like” Carbohydrates have a number of variety. C m (H2O) n such as C 6 (H2O) 6. 4 cal/gram the same as protein Sucrose = glucose + fructose both linked by an oxygen molecule. These are called monosaccharides Disaccharide = 2 monosaccharides Video 3 Our bodies use carbohydrates to create energy. Oxidation reaction Glucose is a monosaccharide C 6 H 12 O 6 when the orientation of the OH and H change, the sugar is different. Video 4 methane = tetrahedral configuration red = oxygen white = hydrogen black = carbon 6 membered ring with 1 oxygen and 5 carbons Video 5 Starch can be digested while cellulose cannot be digested. Enzyme’s shape is complementary to the reactant molecule and when they bind together it can cause the product to break apart for digestion. Enzymes made up of amino acid all linked up together in a protein chain. 38
Video 6 Glucose = dextrose Glucose + fructose Sucrose (disaccharide) and can be broken down by an enzyme = invertase . 2 monosaccharides = disaccharide. Invert sugar = 50/50 glucose and fructose Video 7 Glucose is involved in starch and cellulose Fructose is not bounded in that kind of fashion. It is sweeter than fructose and glucose. Honey = high percentage of fructose and low percentage of sucrose. It is a mixture of many sugars. Small amounts of minerals, amino acid, potassium, acidic materials. The sucrose + molasse = brown sugar - Molasses do not need preservatives as well as in any complex sugars. - The great molasses flood in 1919 in January Maltose - Disaccharide made of 2 glucose molecules. - Sweetening agent derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch Lactose “milk sugar” - Galactose + glucose - 2 monosaccharide. Disaccharide The only monosaccharide = glucose, fructose, galactose Disaccharide = maltose, sucrose, lactose Many people cannot digest milk products = lactose intolerant. - Lactase deficiency = 65% (2/3 of the world) - North American Black = 75% - North American Whites = 25% - Northern climate people can normally digest milk products more easily.
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