The 3D bioprinting technology is also used in the educational sector apart from

The 3d bioprinting technology is also used in the

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The 3D bioprinting technology is also used in the educational sector apart from learning anatomic models and anatomical studies. The polypeptide chain for instance has been developed through the use of 3D printing to help students studying in the chemistry subject. It helps
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Last Name 6 students to conceptualize bimolecular structures that are difficult to comprehend (Ventola 710). In addition, the technology is playing an important role in aiding criminal investigations. Through technologies such as the CT scans, 3D techniques have helped in deducing the causes of injuries and weapon identification (Gross et al. 3247). Fundamentals of Bioprinting The 3D bioprinting achieves its functions through three major processes known as : micro-extrusion bioprinting, inkjet bioprinting and laser bioprinting. Micro-extrusion bioprinting technology helps in fabricating living cells and materials in continuous lines. The system works by combining fluid distribution and the three –axis robot, thus allowing the control system to reproduce the cells (Seol et al. 344). Throughout the process of printing, the system is able to generate bio materials that are extruded through the various outlets. In the deposition process, the bio materials are combined with the cells forming a 3D structure that resembles the original structure. Micro-extrusion printers are mainly used in the creation of aortic valves and vascular structures (Seol et al. 344). Ink jet bioprinting is a customized designed technology that helps in combining and orchestrating cell through acoustic forces or thermal energy (Gross et al 3242). Thermal inkjet printers use electricity in stimulating the nozzle to print cell lines. There has been a concern as to whether the heat affects the viability of stem and muscles cells, but several studies have demonstrated that the heat generated through the print head does not interfere with the cells. The advantages of using this printer are high efficiency, reduced costs and easier access. The acoustic inkjet printers use acoustic waves to stimulate the cells into the scaffold for printing. The advantage of this form of printing lies in its uniformity as the droplets are released in a
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Last Name 7 successive manner during printing. However, there is a likelihood of cell membranes becoming damaged through the process, thus recommended for organs with low cell identity. Laser assisted Bioprinting(LAB) uses optical tweezers effect and thermal shock to print cells. This system is quite systematic and works by first depositing the cells which are later moved into either parallel or vertically in the base plate producing a 3D structure with three layers. The advantage with this method of bio printing is high resolution of the system which ensures accurate arrangement of living cells (Munoz-Abraham 96). However, they the high cost of laser assisted bio printing hs made it quite impossible to conduct further research.
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