introduction of Buddhism into China by traders 5 relationships with societies

Introduction of buddhism into china by traders 5

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introduction of Buddhism into China by traders5.relationships with societies they governeda.Romans were always a minority in empireb.ethnic Chinese had much larger cultural heartland6.role of language differed in the two empiresa.Latin (alphabetic language) gave rise to Spanish, Portuguese,French, Italian, Romanian
7.Roman Empire’s peoples maintained separate cultural identitiesfar more than in China8.Bureaucracy was much more elaborate in China than in Roman Empire1.Why do they fall?.2.common factorsa.excessive size, overextension, too expensive for available resourcesb.no great technological breakthrough to enlarge resourcesc.tax evasion by large landowning familiesd.tax burden fell heavily onto the poore.rivalry between elite factions created instabilityf.epidemic diseaseg.threat from nomadic or semi-agricultural peoples on frontierh.China had dealt with Xiongnu for centuries3.effects of imperial collapsea.decline of urban lifeb.population declinec.reduction of international traded.vast insecurity4.most important difference between collapse of Han and Roman Empires: what happened nexta.China: about 350 years of disorder, then creation of a similar imperial state (Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties)b.Europe: no large-scale imperial system has everbeen successfully established in western Europe since Romansc.Why was China more successful in restoration?IV.Intermittent Empire: The Case of IndiaA. The idea of empire was much less prominent in India than in Persia, the Mediterranean, or China.1.fall of Indus Valley civilization by 1500 B.C.E.2.creation of new civilization along Ganges River3.establishment in northern India of classic civilization of South Asia by 600 B.C.E.a.enormous political, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversity
b.Indian civilization as a whole shaped by political fragmentation and cultural diversityc.identity provided by distinctive religious tradition and social organizationB. Mauryan Empire (326–184 B.C.E.)1.stimulated by Persian and Greek penetration of northwest2.ruled all but southern tip of India3.population of around 50 million4.large military and civilian bureaucracy5.state-operated industries6.Ashoka (r. 268–232 B.C.E.) is best-known emperor, thanks to edicts7.Mauryan Empire broke apart after Ashoka’s deathC. Gupta Empire (320–550 C.

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