Real self inner core of personality that we perceive

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-Real self: inner core of personality that we perceive about ourselves -Despised self: perceptions of inferiority and shortcomings based on others negative feedback- results in feeling helpless -Ideal self: perfectionism and hopes to achieve: “tyranny of the shoulds” Alfred Adler: feelings of superiority -Most fundamental human motive is striving for superiority, security and power -These feelings motivate people to compensate for real or imagined weaknesses -Overcompensation may cause superiority complex -Feelings of Superiority -Superiority: the need to achieve and to be successful -Security: the need to feel loved and accepted -Power: Control over one’s own life -Feelings of inferiority -Inferiority complex: a general sense of inadequacy, weakness, and helplessness -Discounted Freud’s emphasis on the importance of sexual urges -Style of Life: Personality -Expression of striving for superiority to attain goals -Learned from early social interactions -Guiding framework for all later behaviors -Social Interest: the need to care for others -Birth order -Firstborn: Oriented to past, role of leader, organized, scrupulous -Second born: Optimistic, competitive, ambitious -Youngest: High achievers or helpless and dependent -Only child: Difficulty when not center of attention, mature early Humanistic Perspective Abraham Maslow -The emergence of the third force -People are innately good -Most important factor in personality is the individuals conscious, subjective perception of self Carl Rogers -Self-concept: set of perceptions and beliefs you hold about yourself -Positive regard: sense of being loved and valued by others -Actualizing tendency: the innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organism -Unconditional positive regard: child’s sense of being unconditionally loved and valued
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-Conditional positive regarded: sense of being valued and loved only when you act a certain way -Person-centered Theory: A person who tries to reach their unique potential is self- actualizing or fully functioning -When a person is incongruent they experience the real self as threating Diametrically opposed views of human nature -Freud: pessimistic, essence of human nature is destructive -Rogers: Human nature is characterized as positive, forward-moving Social cognitive perspective of personality -Social cognitive perspective -Emphasizes conscious, self-regulated behavior rather than unconscious mental influences -Stresses conscious thought processes, self-regulation, and the importance of situational influences -Social cognitive personality theorists -rely on experimental findings Bandura -Personality is developed through -Emphasis on interaction of personality and situation -Active processing of information from social experiences -Conscious self-generated goals and self-regulation -Development of a self-system based on skills abilities, attitudes The Marshmallow test -Demonstrated the importance of learning delayed gratification -The greater self-control results in more life success Self-efficacy: The degree to which beliefs about our capabilities
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