Qutab – ud – din Aibak History (1206 – 1210) :•Md. Ghori left his Indian possessions in his hands. He ruled on the death of his master and founded this dynasty. •Lahore and later Delhi were his capitals. •Famous for his generosity and earned the sobriquet of lakh – baksh (giver of Lakhs). •Laid the foundation of Qutab Minar after the name of famous Sufi saint, Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki. •Died of a horse fall at Lahore, while playing Chaugan (polo). The Turks only introduced polo in India. •Built the first mosque in India – Quwwat – ul – Islam (at Delhi) and Adhai Din Ka Jhonpara (at Ajmer). •He was a great patron of learning and patronized writers like Hasan Nizami, who wrote Taj – ul – Massir, and Fakhr – ud – din, writer of Tarikh – i – Mubarakshahi. History of Aram Shah (1210) :•When Qutab – ud – din Aibak died all of a sudden at Lahore, the Amirs and Maliks of Lahore put Aram Shah on the throne. Some texts say that he was the son of Aibak while others deny so. •He was a weak and worthless young man and was rejected by the people of Delhi. Iltutmish, who was the Governor of Badaun at that time, defeated him and acquired the throne.32 History of India and Indian National Movement | Iltumish (1210 – 36) :•Shams – ud – din Iltutmish was the son – in – law of Aibak. He is considered the greatest of the slave kings and the real consolidator of the Turkish conquest in India. •He suppressea the revolts of ambitious nobles and sent expeditions against the Rajputs in Ranthambor, Jalor, Gwalior, Aimer, Malwa. •Prevented Chengiz Khan attack by refusing to give refuge to an enemy of Khan, Jalaluddin Mangabarani (a ruler from Iran). Thus, due to his diplomatic skill he prevented Mongol attack. •He got his authority (Sultanate of Delhi) recognized by the Caliph of Baghdad (Khalifa), as a member of world fraternity of Islamic states. •He formed Turkan – i – Chahalgani or Chalisa (a group of 40 powerful Turkish nobles to suppress nobles). •Divided his empire into IQTAS, an assignment of land in lieu of salary, which he distributed to his officers. Every Iqtadar had to maintain law and order and collect revenue. After deducting his salary and the expenses of the government, he sent the surplus revenue to the Central Government. Iqtadars were transferable. •He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – 2 basic coins of the Sultanate. •He patronized Minhaj – ul – Siraj, the author of Tabaqat – i – Nasiri. •He is called the Father of Tomb Building (built Sultan Garhi in Delhi). •As his successor, declared Razia, thus deviating from the normal practice. •History of Qutub Minar Delhi :Qutub Minar in Delhi is the tallest brick minaret in the world. It is 72.5 metres (239ft) high. The diameter of the base is 14.3 metres wide while the top floor measures 2.7 metres in diameter. Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Aibak commenced construction of the Qutub Minar in 1193; but could only complete its basement.