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Tempo, dynamics, phrasing 3.Re-arrangement a.(esp. forces)4.Recording techniques a.Ways you could change sound during recordings ListenersoWhat the composer(s) madeoWhat the performers did w/ it1.“Paratext”: cover art, what you know about the musicians, etc. a.if already love the artist that will change your experience 2.Listening contexts: situation, personal background, etc. oDifferent listeners can have different experiences w/ the same music, due to their own internal constraints The members oGeorge Harrison: lead guitar (plays chords and melodic lines)oRingo Starr: drums oPaul McCartney: bass (melodic line but with the rhythm section)oJohn Lennon: Rhythm guitar (plays chords with the rhythm section) Background history Liverpool: very important port in northern England (40% of oThe Blitz, World War II, 1940-1942Liverpool was the victim of bombings80 air raids 2500 people diedLots of houses were destroyed Post war the British focused on repairing London… not Liverpool All 4 were born during the war oRingo Starr: born July 7, 1940oJohn Lennon: born October 9, 1940oPaul McCartney: born June 18, 1942oGeorge Harrison: born February 25, 1943John Lennon oAlf and Julia Lennon (parents)oJulia’s eldest sister, Mary (Mimi) Smith, did not like the way she was raising John so she took him and raised him with her husband George Not having his mom made him extremely insecure As a result he adopted a tough guy persona oJohn was raised in Woolton (south Liverpool suburb) in a middle class environment
o***Paul, Ringo, and George were all raised in a working class environment***oJohn was a trouble maker in schoolPaul McCartney oJohn and Paul were both smart and tested high enough on the 11 year old placement test and were put in Grammar school oPaul was a little more well behaved in school All 4 loved rock n roll oThey would listen to vinyl recordings and the radio Radio was BBC BBC would have live performancesLonnie Donegan and “Skiffle” oSkiffle band is where you have GOOGLE oBritish teens heard his band play and thought they could play that kind of music and started forming skiffle bandsoKids (including the members of the Beatles) would learn songs from recordings July 1957: Paul (15) meets John (16), John invites Paul to join The QuarrymenFebruary 1958: George (14) auditioned, joined in March oLead guitarist January 1959: John at Liverpool College of Art, playing with Paul and George (others quit) Once John was in college the 3 boys would play in Coffee Clubs and college events January 1960: John’s friend Stu Sutcliffe bought a bass, joined the group. Stu suggested the name “Beatals” after Buddy Holly’s Crickets oMay: Silver BeetlesoJuly: Silver Beatles oAugust: The Beatles August 1960: offered a job in Hamburg, 3 ½ months. They hired Pete Best to playdrums 3 trips to Hamburg 1.-August-September 1960: Indra Club a.-205 hours on stage -October-early December 1960: Kaiserkeller b.-210 more hours on statec.Nicer club 2.