A heuristic is defined as any approach to problem solving that employs a

A heuristic is defined as any approach to problem

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A heuristic is defined as any approach to problem solving that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for immediate goals 发式定义为解 决问题 任何 方法， 用实用方法，不保 ，但 以实现即 目标 Heuristics can be mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load of making a decision 发式可以是 理捷 ，可以减 出决 定的 It describes how people make decisions, come to judgments, and solve problems typically when facing complex problems or incomplete information 它描述 了人们在面对 复杂 问题 或不 完整信息时 出决 策，做 出判断 和解 问题 These rules work well under most circumstances, but in certain cases lead to systematic errors or cognitive biases 这些规则在大多数 情况 都能很好地工 ，但在某些 情况 会导致系统 错误 知偏 Common heuristics Framing effect : Due to narrow perception, decision makers may display changing preferences and make radically different choices depending on the way in which the same, logically identical problem was presented to them 框架 应：由于 知范围 狭窄 策者可能会根据 相同 的， 逻辑 上相同 问题 的方式 变化 的偏好并做 根本不 选择 An example of framing is Mental Accounting. People tend create mental accounts assigning dollars for different purposes even though it would be rational to aggregate and treat the same dollar the same. This gives rise to assigning different values and risk preferences to what is the same economic unit. An example is being more comfortable to gambling money/spend on a luxury item that has been gifted rather than earned. 框架的一个例 理会计。 人们 账户 ，为不 的目的分 ，即使汇 和处理 相同 理的。 这导致为 一经济 的价 和风险偏好。 一个例 是，在一个有天 而不是 奢侈 上赌 / 花钱 会更 舒服 People will also take a different view of what they consider to be a profit or a loss relative to a starting point. This notion is one of the key concepts of the prospect theory. 人们也会对 对于 采取 法。 这个概 是前 的关 之一。 Anchoring bias : when people try to estimate a parameter or quantity, they start their thought process by adopting a value that is sometimes completely arbitrary 定偏 人们 试图 估计 数或数量 们通过 用有 时完 意的 开始他 们的 过程 People become very strongly attached to the initial value (the “anchor”) and are not able to adjust their final estimates correctly 人们对 ）的 依赖 程度非常 ，并且无法 确调 估计 An example is if I offer to sell you my car starting at \$20k knowing that I would be willing to lower to its true market value of \$15k. This may feel more like a bargain than had I started at \$15k as you probably feel the true value is closer to the starting bid. 一个例 是，如果 20 的价格将 卖给你 ，因为 道我 降低 15k 市场 这可能比 我开始时 的价格更 便 ，因为 可能 的价 起始 价。 Availability bias : Over-weighting information that we can easily recall including recent experiences. Some events are easier to recall than others, not because they are more common but because they stand out in our minds and are easier to retrieve from memory 可用性偏 们可以 轻松回忆 信息 ，包括 的经 有些事件比其 事件更 回忆 ，不是因为 们更常 ，而是因为 们在