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A heuristic is defined as any approach to problem solving that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimalor perfect, but sufficient for immediate goals启发式定义为解决问题的任何方法，采用实用方法，不保证最优或完美，但足以实现即时目标•Heuristics can be mental shortcuts that ease the cognitive load of making a decision启发式可以是心理捷径，可以减轻做出决定的认知负担•It describes how people make decisions, come to judgments, and solve problems typically when facing complexproblems or incomplete information它描述了人们在面对复杂问题或不完整信息时如何做出决策，做出判断和解决问题•These rules work well under most circumstances, but in certain cases lead to systematic errors or cognitive biases这些规则在大多数情况下都能很好地工作，但在某些情况下会导致系统错误或认知偏差Common heuristics•Framing effect: Due to narrow perception, decision makers may display changing preferences and make radicallydifferent choices depending on the way in which the same, logically identical problem was presented to them框架效应：由于感知范围狭窄，决策者可能会根据向他们呈现相同的，逻辑上相同的问题的方式显示不断变化的偏好并做出根本不同的选择•An example of framing is Mental Accounting. People tend create mental accounts assigning dollars for different purposeseven though it would be rational to aggregate and treat the same dollar the same. This gives rise to assigning differentvalues and risk preferences to what is the same economic unit. An example is being more comfortable to gamblingmoney/spend on a luxury item that has been gifted rather than earned. 框架的一个例子是心理会计。人们倾向于创建心理账户，为不同的目的分配美元，即使汇总和处理相同的美元是合理的。这导致为同一经济单位分配不同的价值和风险偏好。一个例子是，在一个有天赋而不是赚钱的奢侈品上赌钱/花钱会更舒服。•People will also take a different view of what they consider to be a profit or a loss relative to a starting point. This notionis one of the key concepts of the prospect theory.人们也会对他们认为相对于起点的利润或损失采取不同的看法。这个概念是前景理论的关键概念之一。•Anchoring bias: when people try to estimate a parameter or quantity, they start their thought process by adopting a valuethat is sometimes completely arbitrary锚定偏见：当人们试图估计参数或数量时，他们通过采用有时完全随意的值来开始他们的思考过程•People become very strongly attached to the initial value (the “anchor”) and are not able to adjust their final estimatescorrectly人们对初始值（“锚”）的依赖程度非常强，并且无法正确调整其最终估计值•An example is if I offer to sell you my car starting at $20k knowing that I would be willing to lower to its true marketvalue of $15k. This may feel more like a bargain than had I started at $15k as you probably feel the true value is closer tothe starting bid.一个例子是，如果我提议以20美元的价格将我的车卖给你，因为我知道我愿意降低到15k美元的真实市场价值。这可能比我开始时的价格更便宜，因为您可能觉得真正的价值更接近起始价。•Availability bias: Over-weighting information that we can easily recall including recent experiences. Some events areeasier to recall than others, not because they are more common but because they stand out in our minds and are easier toretrieve from memory可用性偏差：我们可以轻松回忆的超重信息，包括最近的经验。有些事件比其他事件更易于回忆，不是因为它们更常见，而是因为它们在我