• Two approaches 1. The contingency leadership style 2. The path-goal leadership style Three Dimensions of Situational Control • Leader-member relations: Reflects the extent to which the leader has the support, loyalty, and trust of the work group
• Task structure: Extent to which tasks are routine and easily understood • Position power: Refers to how much power a leader has to make work assignments and reward and punish The Path-Goal Leadership Model Path-goal leadership model developed by House – The effective leader increases employees’ motivation by clarifying the paths , or behavior, that will help them achieve goals , and provides them with support. – Two contingency factors, or variables— employee characteristics and environmental factors —cause some leadership behaviors to be more effective than others House’s Path-Goal Theory The Uses of Transformational Leadership Transformational leadership : Employees are encouraged to pursue organizational goals over self- interests. - Leaders are influenced by individual characteristics and organizational culture. - Whereas transactional leaders try to get people to do ordinary things, transformational leaders encourage their people to do exceptional things. Four Key Behaviors of Transformational Leadership 1. Inspirational motivation: “Let me share a vision that transcends us all.” 2. Idealized influence: “We are here to do the right thing.”
3. Individualized consideration: “You have the opportunity to grow and excel here.” 4. Intellectual stimulation: “Let me describe the great challenges we can conquer together.” Implications of Transformational Leadership for Managers 1. It can improve results for both individuals and groups. 2. It can be used to train employees at any level. 3. It requires ethical leaders. • Employ a code of ethics. The company should create and enforce a clearly stated code of ethics. • Choose the right people. Recruit, select, and promote people who display ethical behavior. • Make performance expectations reflect employee treatment. Develop performance expectations around the treatment of employees; these expectations can be assessed in the performance–appraisal process. • Emphasize the value of diversity. Train employees to value diversity. • Reward high moral conduct. Identify, reward, and publicly praise employee’s wo exemplifies high moral conduct.
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- Fall '09