Have linear chromosome with many linear circular

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have linear chromosome with many linear circular plasmids i.e B. recurrentis & B. hermsii→ cause relapsing fever i.e B. burgodorferi→ cause Lyme disease Obligate Intracellular Parasites → Gram-negative rods or coccobacilli that cannot reproduce outside a host cell Rickettsia, Orientia, Enrlichia→ diseases spread by blood-sucking arthroprods i.e R. rickettsii→ Rocky mountain spotted fever, I.e R. prowazekii→ epidemic typhus i.e O. tsutsugamushi→ scrub typhus Coxiella can survive outside host cell as sporelike structures (small-cell variants SCV) that form during intracellular growth but not as resistant as endospores i.e C. burnetii→ only characterized species, that causes Q-fever which is most often acquired by inhaling bacteria shed from infected animals Chlamydia and Chlamydophila transmitted person to person whose cell wall lacks peptidoglycan. 15
UNIT 2-Module 5-Ch10,11,12:Identification and Classification of Prokaryotic Organisms, The Diversity of Prokaryotic organisms, The Eukaryotic Members of the Microbial World unique growth cycle: 1) noninfectious reticulate bodies→ that reproduce by binary fission inside the host 2) differentiate into dense-appearing infectious elementary bodies that are released when cell ruptures i.e C. trachomatis→ causes eye infections and a STD that mimics gonorrhea i.e C. pneumoniae→ causes atypical pneumonia Wolbachia infects arthropods and parasitic worms (not mammals) and it is transmitted maternally via eggs of infected females i. e W. pipientis→ causes river blindness and elephantiasis a debilitating inflammation that results from immune response Compare and contrast the characteristics and habitats of Archaea members. Archaea→ organisms that thrive in extreme environments such as high heat, acidity, alkalinity and salinity. Exception is methanogens. Extreme halophiles→ aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoheterotrophs most can grow in 32% NaCl and require at least 9% NaCl location: salt lakes, soda and brines produce pigments→ seen as red patches on salted fish or as pin blooms in saltwater ponds can obtain additional energy via bacteriorhodopsin→ expels protons from cells and creates proton gradient to drive flagella and synthesis of ATP variety of shapes→ rods, cocci, discs, triangles I,e Halobacterium, Halorubrum, Natronobacterium, Natronococcus Extreme thermophiles (hyperthermophiles) → found in regions that closely mimic earth’s early environment such as volcanic vents and fissure that release sulfurous gases and other hot vapors, hydrothermal vents in deep sea and hot springs Methane-generating hyperthermophiles→ oxidize H 2 using CO 2 as terminal electron acceptor i.e Methanothermus species→ grow optimally at 84C and as high as 97C Sulfur-reducing hyperthermophiles→ obligate anaerobes that oxidize organic compounds (H 2 ) and sulfur acts as the terminal electron acceptor (H 2 S) found in sulfur hot springs and hydrothermal vents i.e Pyrolobus fumarii→ “black smoker” found very deep in Atlantic Ocean that grows between 90-113 C 16

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