PARENT ACCULTURATION STRESS AND ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY
Inventory, Immigrant and non-Immigrant) version were developed. HSI-2 also has immigrant
and non-immigrant versions. HSI2-I has 10 stress subscales, while HSI-NI (for US-born
Hispanics) has 6 subscales (Cervantes et al., 2016).
All two versions have been found to have acceptable Cronbach alpha reliabilities, in
addition to demonstrating satisfactory expert-based content validity and concurrent validity. The
instruments of the HSI2 have been approved for use by researcher and clinicians who seek to
measure psychological stress among Latino populations of varying geographical localities, age
groups, and ethnic subgroups (Cervantes et al., 2016). Higher stress assessment scores indicate
heightened intensity of stressful experiences. The HSI2 and the validity of its scales have been
sufficiently established with both US-born and immigrant Latino populations in America.
Dependent Variables: Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Performance
The dependent variables of interest are academic self-efficacy and academic performance
of Latino adolescents. Academic self-efficacy is frequently measured within specific sub-
domains (such as writing, or math) and, therefore, very few scales have been developed to
measure general academic self-efficacy. The proposed study will measure this variable using the
Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF), which is a widely recognized tool for assessing
academic self-efficacy. The tool comprises of a 57-item survey that measures self-efficacy across
five domains, namely studying, note taking, reading, writing, and test taking (Hayashi, 2011).