Capacity to plan and carry out the actions that are

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capacity to plan and carry out the actions that are necessary in accomplishing some desired goals. According to the social cognitive theory, people are preemptive social agents who adjust actively instead of merely experiencing environmental stressors and the potential effects these might have on their vulnerabilities. Consequently, beliefs concerning self-efficacy constitute a principal means through which individuals maintain power and control over the events affecting their lives. H2: There will be no relationship between parent acculturation stress and adolescent academic performance, when parents report high levels of acculturation stress . Independent and Dependent Variables Independent Variable: Parental Acculturation Stress The independent variable in the proposed study is parental cultural stress, otherwise known as acculturation stress. The variable will be measured using the Hispanic Stress Inventory Version 2 (HSI2), which addresses the political and demographic shifts that have affected Hispanic American immigrants and subsequent Latino generations in America. Significant sociopolitical and sociodemographic changes have occurred within not only the United States population, but also among the Latino population since the original HIS-I/NI (Hispanic Stress
PARENT ACCULTURATION STRESS AND ACADEMIC SELF-EFFICACY 12 Inventory, Immigrant and non-Immigrant) version were developed. HSI-2 also has immigrant and non-immigrant versions. HSI2-I has 10 stress subscales, while HSI-NI (for US-born Hispanics) has 6 subscales (Cervantes et al., 2016). All two versions have been found to have acceptable Cronbach alpha reliabilities, in addition to demonstrating satisfactory expert-based content validity and concurrent validity. The instruments of the HSI2 have been approved for use by researcher and clinicians who seek to measure psychological stress among Latino populations of varying geographical localities, age groups, and ethnic subgroups (Cervantes et al., 2016). Higher stress assessment scores indicate heightened intensity of stressful experiences. The HSI2 and the validity of its scales have been sufficiently established with both US-born and immigrant Latino populations in America. Dependent Variables: Academic Self-Efficacy and Academic Performance The dependent variables of interest are academic self-efficacy and academic performance of Latino adolescents. Academic self-efficacy is frequently measured within specific sub- domains (such as writing, or math) and, therefore, very few scales have been developed to measure general academic self-efficacy. The proposed study will measure this variable using the Self-Efficacy for Learning Form (SELF), which is a widely recognized tool for assessing academic self-efficacy. The tool comprises of a 57-item survey that measures self-efficacy across five domains, namely studying, note taking, reading, writing, and test taking (Hayashi, 2011).

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