ℎ ℎ liquids intermolecular forces imf are strong

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- ↑ ?????𝑖???𝑖?𝑖?? ↑ ???????? ????? ?𝑖?????𝑖?? ↑ ???????ℎ ?? ?𝑖?????𝑖??? ????? ↑ ????????? ??𝑖?ℎ?
LIQUIDS - Intermolecular forces (IMF) are strong enough to hold the molecules close together; - IMF are not enough to keep the molecules from moving past one another Consequences: 1. Liquids flow and assume the shape of the container 2. Denser than other gases 3. Liquids are incompressible, don’t expand to fill the container 4. Diffusion occurs slowly PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS 1. Viscosity 2. Surface tension 3. Vaporization/ Evaporization 4. Vapor Pressure 5. Boiling Point
LIQUIDS PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS 1. Viscosity - Resistance of liquid to flow - Depends on the IMFA that exists in the liquid - ↑ ?𝑖????𝑖?? ↑ ????? ?? ???? ↓ 𝑇 ↑ 𝐼𝑀𝐹 ↑ 𝑃 - For a series of related compounds, viscosity increases with molecular weight.
LIQUIDS PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS 2. Surface Tension - Resistance of a liquid to increase in its surface area - ↑ 𝐼𝑀𝐹? ↑ ??????? ????𝑖?? - Cohesive force: IMFA that binds similar molecules - Adhesive force: IMFA that binds different molecules/surface - Capillary action: spontaneous rise of a liquid in a narrow tube
LIQUIDS PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS 3. Vaporization/ Evaporization - The escape of molecules form liquid state to a gaseous state - Vapor pressure increases with increasing temperature until it equals the external pressure above the liquid, typically atmospheric pressure. Rate of vaporization T IMFA
LIQUIDS PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS 4. Vapor Pressure - Pressure exerted by the vapor over the liquid - Volatile liquids have very weak IMF ↑ 𝑇 ↑ 𝑃 ↑ 𝐼𝑀𝐹 ↓ 𝑉𝑃 ↑ 𝑉𝑃 ↓ ?𝑃
LIQUIDS PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS 5. Boiling Point - Temperature at which the VP of a liquid is equal to the external pressure above the liquid - Normal boiling point at which external pressure is equal to 1 atm Where is the boiling point of a liquid higher, at sea level or in the mountains? The freezing point or melting point is the temperature at which the solid phase of a substance is in equilibrium with its liquid phase.
LET’S EXERCISE 1. List the substances BaCl 2 , H 2 , CO, HF, and Ne in order of increasing boiling point. 2. Which forces (H bond, ion-ion, ion-dipole, dipole- dipole, London dispersion) are present in the following a. methanol b. HI c. NH 3 d. CaCl 2 e. C 6 H 6 3. Which interactions are present in the following a. HI in CH 4 b. CaCl 2 in H 2 O c. HCl in H 2 O d. I 2 in CCl 4 4. Arrange the following types of interactions in order of increasing strength: covalent bond, hydrogen bonding, dipole interaction, ionic bond, London dispersion force
LIQUIDS FRESHWATER PURIFICATION 1. Screening Removal of large items (fish, trash, etc,) 2. Flocculation and Sedimentation Addition of chemicals to trap and precipitate sediments 3. Sand Filtration Water is drawn off and passed through sand filters that remove remaining sediment & bacteria 4. Aeration - Removes questionable odors by supplying air through bubbling 5. Disinfection Cl 2 gas or O 3 is used to kill bacteria remaining in water.
SOLIDS - IMF are strong enough to hold the molecules close together & ‘lock’ them in place. Consequences 1. Solids retain their shape and have fixed volume 2. Solids are incompressible 3.

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